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AND NETWORKS

Dr WCDK FERNANDO

Energy equation

V2 p

V2 p

1 1 1 z1 hL 2 2 2 z2

2g

2g

(head, or energy per unit weight)

HGL Hydraulic Grade Line

HGL

EGL

p

z

V2 p

V2

z HGL

2g

2g

etc.)

EGL slopes in the direction of flow

WCDKF-KDU

Ex 1

Water

The entrance to the pipeline from the

upper reservoir is sharp. At the mid-point

between the reservoirs the diameter of

the pipeline suddenly doubles. The exit

from the second pipe to the lower

reservoir is also sudden so that all of the

velocity head is lost. Sketch the EGL and

HGL.

WCDKF-KDU

Ex 2

The

water surface of the reservoirs in Ex 1 is

53 m. Both pipe 1 and pipe 2 are 1.0 km

in length. Pipe has a diameter of 0.3 m

and pipe 2 a diameter of 0.6 m, and the

friction factors f1 and f2 are both 0.04.

Evaluate the losses and calculate the

discharge.

WCDKF-KDU

rise in EGL (and HGL) since

energy is introduced here

WCDKF-KDU

WCDKF-KDU

Pipes in Series

of different diameters or

roughness are connected

in such a way that the

fluid follows a single flow

path throughout the

system, the system

represents a series

pipeline.

total energy loss is the

sum of the individual

minor losses and all pipe

friction losses.

7

WCDKF-KDU

Pipelines in series

Pipes in Parallel

A combination of

two or more pipes

connected between

two points so that

the

discharge

divides at the first

junction and rejoins

at the next is known

as pipes in parallel.

Here the head loss

between the two

junctions

is

the

same for all pipes.

8

WCDKF-KDU

Pipelines in parallel

Ex 3

Two

pipes laid in parallel. The pipe diameters

are respectively 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm

and they are of the same lengths. If

discharge through 10 cm pipe is 0.1 m3/s,

calculate the discharge through the larger

pipes. Assume f is same for all pipes.

WCDKF-KDU

Ex 4

Two

for connecting to a reservoir from which a

flow of 0.08 m3/s is required. The pipe

diameters are 10 cm and 20 cm

respectively. Compare the head loss

through the system if the pipes constitute

a series and parallel arrangement. Neglect

minor losses due to pipe transitions and

fittings. Assume f = 0.04

WCDKF-KDU

10

The pipe flow can be analysed by

replacing the series combination by a

single pipe of uniform diameter which

would have the same head loss and the

discharge rate.

WCDKF-KDU

11

Ex 5

A

series.

Pipe

Length (m)

Diameter (cm)

AB

2000

40

BC

1500

30

CD

1000

20

Transform

i.

ii.

the system to

an equivalent length of 30 cm diameter pipe

An equivalent diameter for the pipe 4500 m long

WCDKF-KDU

12

For maximum power

transmission

H 3h f

Transmission

efficiency

H hf

H

WCDKF-KDU

13

Ex 6

It

at 85% efficiency by supplying water to a

hydraulic turbine through a horizontal pipe

500 m long. Determine the necessary flow

rate and the minimum diameter of pipe to

carry that discharge. Water is available at

a head of 150 m.

f = 0.006

WCDKF-KDU

14

Ex 7

Power

is to be transmitted hydraulically

along a distance of 8 km through a

number of 10 cm diameter pipes, laid in

parallel. The pressure at the discharge

end is maintained constant at 6650 kPa.

Determine the minimum number of pipes

required to ensure an efficiency of at least

90% when the power delivered is 150 kW.

f = 0.0075

WCDKF-KDU

15

(Siphon phenomena)

Long

reservoir to another over a large distance usually

follow the natural contour of the land.

A section of the pipeline may be raised to an

elevation that is above the local hydraulic gradient

line (siphon phenomena) as shown:

WCDKF-KDU

16

A pipe which rises above its HGL has

negative pressure and is known as a

siphon.

When water is lifted by a pipe to a greater

height than the initial level in the supply

reservoir, then the pipe is called a siphon.

It is a device which carries liquid from

higher level to a lower level through an

intermediate high obstruction.

WCDKF-KDU

17

WCDKF-KDU

18

VS

PS

VA

PA

ZA

Z S hL

2g

2g

VS

PS

Z A ZS

hL

2g

WCDKF-KDU

the pipe line is raised above the hydraulic

gradient

19

reach theoretically -10.3 m water head (gauge

pressure) and zero (absolute pressure).

But in the practice water contains dissolved gasses

that will vaporize before -10.3 m water head which

reduces the pipe flow cross section.

Generally, this pressure reach to -7.6m water head

(gauge pressure) and 2.7m (absolute pressure)

WCDKF-KDU

20

Three-Reservoir Problem

Determine the direction of flow

WCDKF-KDU

21

Three-Reservoir Problem

If all flows are considered

positive towards the junction

then

QA + QB + QC = 0

This implies that one or two of the flows must be outgoing

from junction.

The pressure must change through each pipe to provide the

same piezometric head at the junction. In other words, let the

HGL at the junction have the elevation

pD

hD

z D

WCDKF-KDU

pD: gage

pressure

22

Three-Reservoir Problem

assuming PA=PB=PC=0 (gage) at

each reservoir surface, must be

such that

1. Guess the value of hD (position

of the intersection node)

L VA2

hA f A

z A hD

d 2g

L VB2

hB f B

z B hD

d 2g

L VC2

hC f C

zC hD

d 2g

WCDKF-KDU

3. Solve the equations for VA, VB &

VC and hence for QA, QB & QC

4. Iterate until flow rate balance

at the junction QA+QB+QC=0

If hD too high the

QA+QB+QC <0

23

Pipe Network

interconnected pipes, service reservoirs and/or

pumps, which deliver water from the treatment

plant to the consumer.

Water demand is highly variable, whereas supply

is normally constant. Thus, the distribution

system must include storage elements, and

must be capable of flexible operation.

Pipe network analysis involves the determination

of the pipe flow rates and pressure heads at the

outflows points of the network. The flow rate

and pressure heads must satisfy the continuity

and energy equations.

24

WCDKF-KDU

Pipe Network

(Hardy-Cross Method) is known as the head balance or

closed loop method. This method is applicable to

system in which pipes form closed loops. The outflows

from the system are generally assumed to occur at the

nodes junction.

For a given pipe system with known outflows, the

Hardy-Cross method is an iterative procedure based

on initially iterated flows in the pipes. At each

junction these flows must satisfy the continuity

criterion, i.e. the algebraic sum of the flow rates in

the pipe meeting at a junction, together with any

external flows is zero.

25

WCDKF-KDU

Example

For the square loop shown, find the discharge in

all the pipes. All pipes are 1 km long and 300 mm

in diameter, with a friction factor of 0.0163.

Assume that minor losses can be neglected.

WCDKF-KDU

26

Q

2 H

Assigning clockwise flows and their associated head losses are positive,

the procedure is as follows:

Assume values of Q to satisfy Q = 0.

Calculate HL from Q using HL = K1Q2 .

If HL = 0, then the solution is correct.

If HL 0, then apply a correction factor, Q, to all Q and repeat

from step (2).

For practical purposes, the calculation is usually terminated when

HL < 0.01 m or Q < 1 L/s.

A reasonably efficient value of Q for rapid convergence is given by;

WCDKF-KDU

27

Solution:

equations all at nodes.

The head loss is calculated using; HL = K1Q2

HL = hf + hLm

Thus HL = hf

hLm = 0

L V2

hf

D 2g

WCDKF-KDU

28

L V2

HL hf

D 2g

1000

V2

H L 0.0163 x

x

0.3 2 x 9.81

H L 2.77

Q2

A2

2.77 x

Q2

2

x 0.3

4

H L 554Q 2

H L K' Q 2

K ' 554

First trial

Pipe

Q (L/s)

HL (m)

HL/Q

AB

60

2.0

0.033

BC

40

0.886

0.0222

CD

AD

-40

-0.886

0.0222

2.00

0.0774

WCDKF-KDU

29

2

HL

12.92 L / s

H

2

x

0

.

0774

L

2

Q

Second trial

Pipe

Q (L/s)

HL (m)

HL/Q

AB

47.08

1.23

0.0261

BC

27.08

0.407

0.015

CD

-12.92

-0.092

0.007

AD

-52.92

-1.555

0.0294

-0.0107

0.07775

Thus, the discharge in each pipe is as follows (to the nearest integer).

Pipe

Discharge (L/s)

AB

47

BC

27

CD

-13

AD

-53

WCDKF-KDU

30

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