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PIPE SYSTEMS

AND NETWORKS

Dr WCDK FERNANDO

EGL & HGL for a Pipe System

Energy equation
V2 p
V2 p
1 1 1 z1 hL 2 2 2 z2
2g
2g

All terms are in dimension of length


(head, or energy per unit weight)
HGL Hydraulic Grade Line
HGL

EGL Energy Grade Line


EGL

p
z

V2 p
V2
z HGL
2g
2g

EGL=HGL when V=0 (reservoir surface,


etc.)
EGL slopes in the direction of flow

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Ex 1
Water

flows between two large reservoirs.


The entrance to the pipeline from the
upper reservoir is sharp. At the mid-point
between the reservoirs the diameter of
the pipeline suddenly doubles. The exit
from the second pipe to the lower
reservoir is also sudden so that all of the
velocity head is lost. Sketch the EGL and
HGL.

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Ex 2
The

difference in elevation between the


water surface of the reservoirs in Ex 1 is
53 m. Both pipe 1 and pipe 2 are 1.0 km
in length. Pipe has a diameter of 0.3 m
and pipe 2 a diameter of 0.6 m, and the
friction factors f1 and f2 are both 0.04.
Evaluate the losses and calculate the
discharge.

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EGL & HGL for a Pipe System

A pump causes an abrupt


rise in EGL (and HGL) since
energy is introduced here

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Total Energy Gradient Line

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Pipes in Series

When two or more pipes


of different diameters or
roughness are connected
in such a way that the
fluid follows a single flow
path throughout the
system, the system
represents a series
pipeline.

In a series pipeline the


total energy loss is the
sum of the individual
minor losses and all pipe
friction losses.

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Pipelines in series

Pipes in Parallel

A combination of
two or more pipes
connected between
two points so that
the
discharge
divides at the first
junction and rejoins
at the next is known
as pipes in parallel.
Here the head loss
between the two
junctions
is
the
same for all pipes.
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Pipelines in parallel

Ex 3
Two

reservoirs are connected by three


pipes laid in parallel. The pipe diameters
are respectively 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm
and they are of the same lengths. If
discharge through 10 cm pipe is 0.1 m3/s,
calculate the discharge through the larger
pipes. Assume f is same for all pipes.

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Ex 4
Two

pipes each 250 m long are available


for connecting to a reservoir from which a
flow of 0.08 m3/s is required. The pipe
diameters are 10 cm and 20 cm
respectively. Compare the head loss
through the system if the pipes constitute
a series and parallel arrangement. Neglect
minor losses due to pipe transitions and
fittings. Assume f = 0.04

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Concept of Equivalent Pipe


The pipe flow can be analysed by
replacing the series combination by a
single pipe of uniform diameter which
would have the same head loss and the
discharge rate.

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Ex 5
A

piping system consists of 3 pipes arranged in


series.
Pipe

Length (m)

Diameter (cm)

AB

2000

40

BC

1500

30

CD

1000

20

Transform
i.
ii.

the system to
an equivalent length of 30 cm diameter pipe
An equivalent diameter for the pipe 4500 m long

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Hydraulic Transmission of Power


For maximum power
transmission

H 3h f
Transmission
efficiency

H hf
H

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Ex 6
It

is desired to develop 1000 kW of power


at 85% efficiency by supplying water to a
hydraulic turbine through a horizontal pipe
500 m long. Determine the necessary flow
rate and the minimum diameter of pipe to
carry that discharge. Water is available at
a head of 150 m.
f = 0.006

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Ex 7
Power

is to be transmitted hydraulically
along a distance of 8 km through a
number of 10 cm diameter pipes, laid in
parallel. The pressure at the discharge
end is maintained constant at 6650 kPa.
Determine the minimum number of pipes
required to ensure an efficiency of at least
90% when the power delivered is 150 kW.
f = 0.0075

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Pipe line with negative Pressure


(Siphon phenomena)
Long

pipelines laid to transport water from one


reservoir to another over a large distance usually
follow the natural contour of the land.
A section of the pipeline may be raised to an
elevation that is above the local hydraulic gradient
line (siphon phenomena) as shown:

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Negative Pressure in Pipeline - Siphon


A pipe which rises above its HGL has
negative pressure and is known as a
siphon.
When water is lifted by a pipe to a greater
height than the initial level in the supply
reservoir, then the pipe is called a siphon.
It is a device which carries liquid from
higher level to a lower level through an
intermediate high obstruction.

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VS
PS
VA
PA

ZA

Z S hL
2g

2g

VS
PS
Z A ZS

hL
2g

-ve valueMust be -ve value ( below the atmospheric pressure

Negative pressure exists in the pipelines wherever


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the pipe line is raised above the hydraulic
gradient

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The negative pressure at the summit point can


reach theoretically -10.3 m water head (gauge
pressure) and zero (absolute pressure).
But in the practice water contains dissolved gasses
that will vaporize before -10.3 m water head which
reduces the pipe flow cross section.
Generally, this pressure reach to -7.6m water head
(gauge pressure) and 2.7m (absolute pressure)

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Three-Reservoir Problem

Determine the discharge


Determine the direction of flow
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Three-Reservoir Problem
If all flows are considered
positive towards the junction
then
QA + QB + QC = 0
This implies that one or two of the flows must be outgoing
from junction.
The pressure must change through each pipe to provide the
same piezometric head at the junction. In other words, let the
HGL at the junction have the elevation

pD

hD
z D

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pD: gage
pressure
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Three-Reservoir Problem

Head lost through each pipe,


assuming PA=PB=PC=0 (gage) at
each reservoir surface, must be
such that
1. Guess the value of hD (position
of the intersection node)

L VA2
hA f A
z A hD
d 2g
L VB2
hB f B
z B hD
d 2g
L VC2
hC f C
zC hD
d 2g
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2. Assume f for each pipe


3. Solve the equations for VA, VB &
VC and hence for QA, QB & QC
4. Iterate until flow rate balance
at the junction QA+QB+QC=0
If hD too high the
QA+QB+QC <0
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Pipe Network

A water distribution system consists of complex


interconnected pipes, service reservoirs and/or
pumps, which deliver water from the treatment
plant to the consumer.
Water demand is highly variable, whereas supply
is normally constant. Thus, the distribution
system must include storage elements, and
must be capable of flexible operation.
Pipe network analysis involves the determination
of the pipe flow rates and pressure heads at the
outflows points of the network. The flow rate
and pressure heads must satisfy the continuity
and energy equations.
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Pipe Network

The earliest systematic method of network analysis


(Hardy-Cross Method) is known as the head balance or
closed loop method. This method is applicable to
system in which pipes form closed loops. The outflows
from the system are generally assumed to occur at the
nodes junction.
For a given pipe system with known outflows, the
Hardy-Cross method is an iterative procedure based
on initially iterated flows in the pipes. At each
junction these flows must satisfy the continuity
criterion, i.e. the algebraic sum of the flow rates in
the pipe meeting at a junction, together with any
external flows is zero.
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Example
For the square loop shown, find the discharge in
all the pipes. All pipes are 1 km long and 300 mm
in diameter, with a friction factor of 0.0163.
Assume that minor losses can be neglected.

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Q
2 H

Assigning clockwise flows and their associated head losses are positive,
the procedure is as follows:
Assume values of Q to satisfy Q = 0.
Calculate HL from Q using HL = K1Q2 .
If HL = 0, then the solution is correct.
If HL 0, then apply a correction factor, Q, to all Q and repeat
from step (2).
For practical purposes, the calculation is usually terminated when
HL < 0.01 m or Q < 1 L/s.
A reasonably efficient value of Q for rapid convergence is given by;

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Solution:

Assume values of Q to satisfy continuity


equations all at nodes.
The head loss is calculated using; HL = K1Q2

HL = hf + hLm

But minor losses can be neglected:

Thus HL = hf

Head loss can be calculated using the DarcyWeisbach equation

hLm = 0

L V2
hf
D 2g
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L V2
HL hf
D 2g
1000
V2
H L 0.0163 x
x
0.3 2 x 9.81
H L 2.77

Q2
A2

2.77 x

Q2

2
x 0.3
4

H L 554Q 2
H L K' Q 2
K ' 554

First trial

Pipe

Q (L/s)

HL (m)

HL/Q

AB

60

2.0

0.033

BC

40

0.886

0.0222

CD

AD

-40

-0.886

0.0222

2.00

0.0774

Since HL > 0.01 m, then correction has to be applied.


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2
HL

12.92 L / s
H
2
x
0
.
0774
L
2
Q

Second trial
Pipe

Q (L/s)

HL (m)

HL/Q

AB

47.08

1.23

0.0261

BC

27.08

0.407

0.015

CD

-12.92

-0.092

0.007

AD

-52.92

-1.555

0.0294

-0.0107

0.07775

Since HL 0.01 m, then it is OK.


Thus, the discharge in each pipe is as follows (to the nearest integer).
Pipe

Discharge (L/s)

AB

47

BC

27

CD

-13

AD

-53

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