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# GNPOC HSE DEPARTMENT

Electrical safety

Electrical Safety
OBJECTIVE:To be
1.
Familiar with the fundamental concepts of electricity.
2.
Familiar with the effects of electricity on the human
body.
3.
Able to recognize the possible common electrical
hazards.
4.
Familiar with electrical protective devices and To give
Better awareness and understanding on Safety
measures and practices to avoid those hazards.

Electrical Safety

Philosophy
Electricity is invisible. It cannot be seen,
heard, tasted, or smelled. Like a snake
hiding in the grass, electricity will strike if
you dont follow safe work practices as
well as using and maintaining safe
equipment.

Electrical Safety

## Electricity - What Is It?

Electrical Safety

## Flow of electrons along a conductor

Electrical Safety

Current (I)
Ampere (A)
1 A = 1 coulomb/sec = 6.242 x 1018
electrons/sec
Voltage (E)
Volt (V)
1 V = 1 joule/coulomb
Potential energy with each charge

Electrical Safety
Resistance (R)

Ohm ()
1 = 1 volt/ampere
Opposition to flow

Electrical Safety

Ohms Law

E = IR or
L (+)
E

R = E/I or

I=E/R

N (-)

Electrical Safety

## Basic Rules of Electrical Action

Electricity isnt live until current flows
Electrical current wont flow until there
is a complete loop, out from and back to
the power source.

Electrical Safety

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS

Electrical Safety

## The causes of electrical hazards

and accidents:
1. Contact(direct or Indirect) with
energized conductive parts.
2. Faulty insulation.
3. Improper grounding.
4. Loose connections.
5. Defective parts.

Electrical Safety

## 6. Ground faults in equipment.

7. Unguarded live parts.
8. Failure to re-energize electrical equipment
when it is being repaired or inspected.
9. Intentional use of obviously defective and
unsafe tools.
10.Use of tools or equipment too close to
energized parts.

Electrical Safety
ELECTRICAL HAZARDS

Primary Hazards

Secondary Hazards

Electrical Safety
1- Primary Hazards
Electric Shock (Electrocution).
Fire.
Explosion.
2- Secondary Hazards
Burns.
Toxic gases
Falls

Electrical Safety

1- Electric shock
The electrical shock occurs when the
human body becomes part of the path
through which current flows.
The direct result can be electrocution.
The indirect result can be injury
resulting from a fall because of a shock

Electrical Safety

Electrical Safety

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Electrical Safety
2- FIRES:-

## Electricity is one of the most common

causes of fires both in the home and in
the workplace. Defective or misused
electrical equipment is a major cause.
Fire Movie

Electrical Safety

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Electrical Safety
3-EXPLOSIONS:Explosions occur when electricity provides a source of
ignition for an explosive mixture in the atmosphere.

Explosion Movie

Electrical Safety

ARC-BLAST:
Occur from high- amperage currents
arcing through the air. This can be
caused by accidental contact with
energized components or equipment
failure.

Arcing Movie

Electrical Safety

ARC-BLAST RESULT S
Pressure Wave(15 tons of pressure)
Destruction of structures and life
Heat
Molten metal

Electrical Safety

## ARC-BLAST:The three primary hazards associated with

an arc-blast are:
Pressure Wave.
Projectiles.

Electrical Safety

## 4- BURNS:Burns can result

when a person
touches electrical
wiring or energized
equipment.

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Electrical Safety

## 5-Toxic gases:Electrical discharges, including

partial discharge and corona, can
produce small quantities of toxic
gases, which in a confined space
can be a serious health hazard.

Electrical Safety

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6-Falls

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Electrical Safety

## Electrical Shock& Burns:Received when current passes through the body.

Most common shock-related, nonfatal injury
Occurs when touch electrical wiring or equipment
that is improperly used or maintained.
Typically occurs on the hands.
Very serious injury that needs immediate
attention.

Electrical Safety

## (A)Severity due to electrical shock depends on:

Physical body of the victim, health, age and
weight.
Victim response.
Electric flow through body
Duration of electric flow.
Capacity/magnitude of current
Frequency
Capacity/magnitude of voltage

Electrical
Safety
Nominal Human Response to Current
More than 3 mA

painful shock

More than 10 mA

More than 30 mA

More than 50 mA

100 ma to 4 mA

Over 4 Am

## heart paralysis; severe burns.

Electrical Safety

## (B)Degree of burning due to arc depends on:

1- Arc Tempt 8,000 -10,000 degree Celsius
2- Fault current
Arcing current depends on fault current
than voltage system
Therefore both HV and LV can cause serious
burn
Arc in the box's e.g.. Cubicle panel has 6
times more energy than open-arc.
3- Distance from arc (energy ~ 1/d2)
4- Duration expose to arc.

Electrical Safety

E = I2Rt
E= energy, joules
I = current, amperes
R = resistance of current path through the
body, ohms
t = time of current flow, seconds

Electrical Safety

## Chances of Survival from burn

Temperature during short circuit on high
voltage( 8000OC 10000OC)
Degree of burns : 1st, 2nd & 3rd
Surface area / percentage of burns
Age of victim

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Electrical Safety

ELECTRICAL SAFETY

## Chances of Survival on high voltage arcing depends on age of victim

.
25% Burn

Age

50% Burn

Age

75% Burn

Age

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## Prevention of the Electrical

Hazardous

Electrical Safety
(1)General Principles/Means:
Safe Electrical System
Protective Devices in the electrical supply
system..
Required by local code and regulations.
Required for fixed installation and portable
equipment.
Safe Equipment
Use of Safe Equipment (with adequate protection)
Safe Work Practices
Safe use of equipment (Proper Use)

Electrical Safety
Safeguard against Direct Contact with Live Electrical
Parts, Restrict access or contact by Enclosure/
Guarding/ Barrier

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Safeguard against Ground Fault Conditions

Grounding/Earthing
Draining of leaked out current to the earth/ground using a
conductor (earth wire)
Eliminate the build up of potential difference between the
equipment and the ground

Electrical Safety
Proper Wiring :
Cable must be firmly gripped to release strain from
the conductor wires, to ensure that the conductors
would not be pulled out of the terminals

Electrical Safety
Grounding of Conductive Surfaces:
Metallic conductive surfaces may be electrically
charged accidentally e.g. Work benches on which
electrical equipment's are placed.

Electrical Safety

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Automatic Protection Device
Automatic disconnection of power when an electricity leak is
detected.
Devices
Residual Current Device (RCD)
(Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB)
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)

Electrical Safety
Residual Current Device

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Residual Current Device

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## Over- -current Protection

Use conductor of sufficient size specified in wiring
regulations
Fuse Protection
Use MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker) Protection

Electrical Safety

## General Safety Practices:

Only authorized, competent, and qualified persons are allowed to
work on or around electrical equipment and/ or wiring.
Purchase up-to-standard electrical equipment equipped with
appropriate protective devices.
Use lower voltages.
Proper use of electrical equipment (not to interfere with protective
devices)

Electrical Safety
Do not use conductive ladders for electrical work or work near
electrical installation.

Electrical Safety
Proper maintenance of system and
equipment.

Electrical Safety
Emergency procedures in the event of an
accident
Equipment emergency shutdown procedure,
e.g. power cut-off switch can be easily
reached.
Electric shock first aid procedure, need for
first-aid training.

Electrical Safety

## (B)Specific Safety Procedures

For Electrical/Mechanical System Maintenance
1-Lockout / Tagout procedures : To avoid inadvertent release of energy (electrical and / or
mechanical) causing serious harm to people working on the
system.
Effective isolation of power supply.

Electrical Safety

Electrical Safety
Plan the shutdown of the system.
Alert operator and other users of the shutdown.
Lockout the power supply to the system at the most
appropriate point.
Have all teams/workers place their personal & individual
Put a warning tag at the lockout.
Release all stored or residual energies (e.g. capacitors,
Test the circuit to confirm it is dead. Each team/worker
should remove only his own padlock upon completion of
his part of work.

Electrical Safety
2- Working in Hazardous Environment
Avoid Generation of Sparks in Hazardous Atmosphere.
Use spark proof / intrinsically safe equipment and
installation in hazardous areas where there are:
flammable liquids;
combustible liquids operating at a temperature above their
flash point; or
gases or combustible dusts that may be present in
flammable, explosive and combustible concentrations

Electrical Safety

## 3- work in live electrical systems

The proper and suitable Personal
Protective Equipment's (PPE)should be
use.
Electrical PPE should be use whenever a
you could come into contact with exposed
electrical parts.
PPE must be designed for the work being
performed.
Always inspect your electrical tools and
PPE before each use.

Electrical Safety

Electrical Safety

## Types of electrical hazard analysis

The three principle types of electrical
hazard analysis are :(1)Shock Hazard Analysis
Then main three factors of the electrical shock
hazard
1. Failure to properly or completely de-energize
systems prior to maintenance or repair work.
2. Intentionally working on energized equipment.
3. Improper or inadequate grounding of electrical
system components.

Regulatory Requirements
1. All equipment must be placed in a de-energized
state prior to any maintenance or repair work.
(Limited exceptions exist).
2. The de-energized state must be verified prior to
any work.
3. The de-energized state must be maintained
through the consistent use of locks and tags, and
in some cases, grounding.
4. When energized work is performed, it must be
performed in accordance with written procedures.

## (2)Arc Flash Hazard Analysis

The reasons of electrical arcs created during
1. short circuits.
2. ground faults
3. switching procedures.
The principal factors used to determine the
arc-flash hazard to personnel are as follows:
1. Available short circuit current at the arc
location
2. Duration of the electrical arc
3. Distance from the arc to personnel
4. The arc gap

## Why make ARC FLSH hazard

analysis?
accurately assess the arc hazard and
make appropriate decisions regarding
personal protective clothing, it is
necessary to fully understand the
operation of the system under fault
conditions.

## The actual arc hazard is based on available energy, not

available voltage.
National Electrical Code Section 110.16 Flash
Protection
The NEC states,"Electrical equipment, such as
switchboards, panel boards, industrial control panels,
meter socket enclosures, and motor control centers,
that are in other than dwelling units, and are likely to
require
maintenance while energizedshallbe field marked to
warn qualified persons of potential electric arc flash
hazards. The marking shall be located so as to be
clearly visible to qualified persons before examination,
adjustment, servicing, or maintenance of the
equipment."

Equipment Labeling

## An electrical blast or explosion, as it is

often termed, is the result of the
heating effects of electrical current
and the ensuing arc. This phenomenon
occurs in nature as the thunder that
accompanies lightning, a natural form
of an electrical arc.

PPE
Each employee shall be trained to know
at least the following:
When PPE is necessary;
What PPE is necessary;
How to properly don, doff, adjust, and
wear PPE;
The limitations of the PPE;
The proper care, maintenance, useful
life, and disposal of PPE."

## Electrical Hazard Analysis

Conduct a Shock Hazard Analysis;
Establish Shock Protection Boundaries;
Conduct a Flash Hazard Analysis;
Establish a Flash Protection Boundary; and
Select the Appropriate Personal
Protective Equipment and Tools.
Shock Protection Boundary:
Flash Hazard Analysis:

## The following are steps could be taken to ensure adequacy

of the electrical safe work practices program and training of
"qualified" electrical personnel:
1. Conduct a comprehensive Job Task Analysis.
2. Complete a Task Hazard Assessment including:
a) Shock hazard
b) Arc flash hazard
c) Arc Blast hazard
d) Other hazards (slip, fall, struck-by, environmental, etc.)
3. Analyze task for the Personal Protective Equipment
needed.
4. Conduct training needs assessment for qualified and nonqualified electrical workers.
5. Revise, update, or publish a complete "Electrical Safe
Work Practices Program."

Thanks