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B2.2.

4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Greek mill (c. 100BC)

B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines:Mesopotamian Saquia
(c. 1200 AD)

the Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices of al-Jahazi

B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Water wheels (c. 1800)
1-50kW

B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Fourneyrons turbine (1832)

B2.

Hydropower
Seminars A206a
Read summary of case studies
Nepal
Peru

Discussion
What were the good and bad projects
What makes a good project
What were the social benefits of the projects?
Were these valued?
Who benefits and who loses

B2.

Reservoirs
Seminar groups

Group 1 (14:00)

Group 2 (14:30)

Gunjan Dhingra

Dafydd Caffery

Rob Morford

Roger Palmer

Mike Farrow

Samuel Carter

Chris Swinburn

Anthony Pearson

Hannah Jones

Nedim Dzananovic

Kate Taylor

Gareth Pilmoor

Matt Knight

Philip Hallgarth

Celia Way

Ann Ruthven

Paul Knowles

Neil Harding

Marie Wells

Matthew Scott

Peter Adams

Martin Hill

Matt Whitley

Ben Sheterline

Elizabeth Aldridge

Karen Hockey

Eral Kahveci

Melanie Sim

Jonathan Bailey

Ching Hong

Imra Karimn

Nicholas Thompson

Khesraw Bashir

Adam Ithier

Martin Kendrick

Daniel Tkotsch

Christopher Baxter

Peter Jordan

Shua Lii

Christopher Tompkins

Richard Buckland

Jan Jozefowski

Beth Mcdowall

Ian Yeung

Adil Munir

B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Power conversion

P Q gh

P T

B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Power conversion

T Fr
F M
m&v
Qv

B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Power conversion:Velocity
triangles
u1

R1

1
v1
vr1

Rotation

v2

2
vr2

R2

u2

B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines:
Impulse
Pelton wheel
Turgo
Crossflow

Reaction
Radial (e.g. Francis)
Axial (e.g. propeller, bulb, Kaplan)

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Pelton wheel (1889)

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Pelton wheel

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Pelton wheel

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Pelton wheel

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Pelton wheel

R 2 = R1
v2
u 2 = u1

vr2

v1 (jet velocity)= vr1


Rotation

R1

u1

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Pelton wheel

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Pelton wheel:Jet

v jet C j 2 gh v penstock
0.94-0.98

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Pelton wheel

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Pelton wheel: Multi jet

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Pelton wheel: Multi jet
Higher rotational speed
Smaller runner
Simple flow control possible
Redundancy
Can cope with a large range of flows
But
Needs complex manifold
May make control/governing complex
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B2.1.4 Fundamentals of Hydro power


Yields and economics: Flow-duration
curve

Discharge (m /s)

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1
17,000 kWh/mhead
8,500 kWh/mhead

4,000 kWh/mhead

99.8
99.9
99.95
99.98
99.99

Percentage of discharge exceeding

98
99

95

90

70

50

30

10

0.5
1
2

0.01
0.02
0.05
0.1
0.2

0.1

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Pelton wheel: Sri Lankan

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Turgo (1904)

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Turgo

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Turgo

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Turgo

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Turgo

R1

Rotation

u1
1=20
v1 (jet velocity)
vr1

v2

R2 = R 1

vr2 u2 = u1

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Turgo: MPPU based on Nepali
Ghatta

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Crossflow (1941)

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Crossflow

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Crossflow: Panama

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Crossflow

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Francis (1849)

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Francis

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Francis

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Francis

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Francis

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Francis
u1

R1

1
v1
vr1

Rotation

v2

2
vr2

R2 = R 1

u2

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Propeller

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Propeller

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Propeller

v1

R1
u1

Rotation

v2

R2 = R 1

vr2u2= u1

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Kaplan (1913)

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Kaplan

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: siting propellers

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Water current (1980)

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Water current

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Characterising turbines

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Characterising turbines

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Characterising turbines

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Characterising turbines:
Dimensionless groups
CQ

Q
Fluid velocity

ND 3 Blade velocity

gH
CH 2 2
N D

CP

P
N 3 D5

CQ

= flow coefficient

CH

= head coefficient

CP

= power coefficient

= discharge

= rotational speed

= diameter

= gravity

= head

= power

= density
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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Characterising turbines:
Dimensionless groups:Specific speed
C1P 2
N sp 5 4
CH

NP1 2

1 2 gH

NP1 2
N sp 5 4
H

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Nsp

= Specific speed

CH

= head coefficient

CP

= power coefficient

= rotational speed

= power

= density

= gravity

= head

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Characterising turbines: Specific
speed: Dimensional specific speed
Type

Typical
head

Rad

Rev

Metric

British

>300

<0.2

<0.03

<30

<10

Francis

500-30

0.25-1.3

0.04-0.2

50-250

10-60

Kaplan

50-4

2-6

0.3-1

3601200

100-300

Pelton

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Characterising turbines

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Characterising turbines

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Cavitation

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Cavitation

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Cavitation

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: L-1 propeller turbine designed
for minimal cavitation

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: L-1 propeller turbine designed
for minimal cavitation after 25,000 hours

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Cavitation: Thoma number

p
pA
v hs
g g

= Thoma number

pa

= atmospheric pressure

pv

= vapour pressure

hs

= elevation above
tailwater

= total head

= density

= gravity

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B2.2.4 Hydropower system design


Turbines: Cavitation: Critical Thoma
number

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