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A simple method for designing efficient

public lighting, based on new


parameter relationships
O. Rabazaa*,A. Pea-Garcaa,F. Prez-Ocnb,D. GmezLorentea
a - Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, Severo Ochoa Str. s/n., 18071 Granada, Spain
b - Department of Optics, University of Granada, Severo Ochoa Str. s/n., 18071 Granada, Spain

Presented by
JAYAWARDANE A.J.S.
JAYAWARDANE A.K.H.
KULATHUNGA H.G.G.
02.12.2016

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

1.0 Introduction
Public lighting consumes considerable amount of electricity.
Therefore, design of energy efficient public lighting is a necessary requirement.
Most of software applications for public lighting design are targeted to achieve,

Uniformity.

Average illuminance values.


Unfortunately, Doesnt consider the energy efficiency of the installation.
Previously,
Research Topic

:A new methodology for calculating roadway lighting


design based on a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm.

Conducted by

:Gmez-Lorente, Rabaza, Espn Estrella, & Pea-Garca

Results

:Obtain the parameters for a lighting installation with


maximum uniformity and efficiency, based on a given set
of luminaire characteristics.

However the method is still complicated.

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

1.0 Introduction
In this research,
A Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm were used.
It used following equations,

Where,
H

= Luminaire height

= Average illuminance

= Space between luminaires

a,b,c &d = Luminaire parameters

Linear regression analysis is used to find the luminaire parameters.


Luminaire spacing, height, and illuminance, which are some of the main outputs
in street lighting calculations.
Once it found the parameters it is very simple to design efficient street lighting.

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

2.0 Roadway Lighting


Roadway lighting installations are characterized by,
Geometrical parameters.
Light distribution of the luminaires and their light sources.
The requirements for the performance of such installations have been specified by the
International Commission on Illumination (CIE).
It is based technical parameters of the light.
Those technical parameters are,
Illuminance-based (where the illuminance is the luminous flux received per
unit of surface).
luminance-based (based on the luminous flux emitted within a given solid
angle per unit of surface in a given direction).

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

2.0 Roadway Lighting


Illuminance based parameters were considered in this research.
Overall illuminance uniformity ().
Where,
= Minimum illuminance

= Average illuminance

It is directly related to the quality of the roads illumination.


Low uniformity ratios imply frequent changes of contrasting.
It causes enormous eye discomfort, leading to stress and tiredness.
Energy efficiency of the lighting installation ().
Where,
= Total illuminated surface

= Total electrical power

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

2.0 Roadway Lighting

Fig. 1. One-sided (a), two-sided coupled (b) and two-sided staggered (c) installations with the individual rectangle for each luminaire is represented.

This parameter can also be expressed as a function of individual rectangles


influenced by a given luminaire as shown,
Where,
= Surface of an individual rectangle

= Total electrical power


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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

2.0 Roadway Lighting


According to the international standards,
Overall illuminance uniformity () 0.4

No overall requirement for efficiency, which must simply be as high as possible.

Inputs for lighting design software,


Characteristics of the street to be illuminated.
Street dimensions, Desired average illuminance
Configuration of the installation
One-sided, Two-sided staggered, Two-sided coupled

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

2.0 Roadway Lighting


The main results of the calculation,
Spacing between luminaires.
Height of luminaires.
Overall illuminance uniformity.
2.1 Definition of lighting classes
CIE recommendations for the street lighting designs is based on,
Luminance - Used for motor vehicle traffic.
Illuminance

- Affects all other areas.

ex: junctions, minor and residential roads, urban centers, and foot and cycle
paths.

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

2.0 Roadway Lighting


2.1 Definition of lighting classes

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

2.0 Roadway Lighting


2.2 Energy classification of street lighting installations
The approach adopted in this research is based on the Street Lighting Energy
Efficiency Criterion (SLEEC) (CEN, 2008).
The formula for the SLEEC indicator depends on the photometric measurement used
in the calculation of street lighting for specific road classes.
Where,
= Energy efficiency of street lighting

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

2.0 Roadway Lighting


2.1 Definition of lighting classes

Fig. 2. EU energy class labels. Each color code is associated


with a letter from A to G, indicating the electricity
consumption of the appliance.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


MOEA are most commonly used to solve the lighting problems.
Examples ,
Mixtures of multiple narrow-band LEDs were optimized with a differential
evolution algorithm (Soltic & Chalmers, 2012).
To calculate the optimal lighting for an outdoor tennis court or a football field
(Corcione & Fontana, 2003).
Color quality of LED lighting, based on the memory color quality metric (Smet,
Ryckaert,Pointer, Deconinck, & Hanselaer, 2012).
Above examples prove the effectiveness of MOEAs to solve multi-objective
optimization problems.
A well known MOEA called Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm NSGA-II
(Deb, Pratap, Agarwal, & Meyarivan, 2002) to optimize the public lighting.
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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II
Input parameters,
Street dimensions.
Luminaire characteristics (e.g. spatial light distribution of the luminous flux).
Required illuminance values.
Objective of this research is to evaluate the influence of the location and
characteristics of the luminaires on the performance of the roadway lighting system.
NSGA II used in this study has two functions.

Calculation of average illuminance of the street.

Calculation of efficiency in this same street.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II

Fig. 3. NSGA-II pseudocode.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II
Calculation of average illuminance of the street,

Computes the surface of the area between two consecutive luminaries on the
same side of the street

Consider the meter to meter grid for the whole surface and calculates the
value of illuminance in each point of this grid.

The average illuminance is obtained as the arithmetical average of all the


illuminances in the points of the grid.

Fig. 4. Calculation area with contributable luminaires.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II
Calculation of efficiency of the street.
Dimensions of the individual rectangle according to the installation
configuration as shown in Fig. 1.
Number of luminaries which contribute in the calculation of the illuminance
Efficiency can be calculated using,

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II
The individuals in this MOEA are formed by two attributes.
Spacing between luminaries.
Height of the luminaries.
Spacing between luminaries.
Directly affects to the to the average illuminance and also to the uniformity.
The algorithm ignores the solutions with an average illuminance that is
different from the required or with very low efficiency, which happens when
the spacing is very large or very small.
Therefore this variable does not have constrains.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II
Height of the luminaries,
Determined by the length of the available supports or poles in the market.
The algorithm ignores the solutions with unfeasible heights during its search.
Since both objectives are contradictory, the MOEA must keep an equilibrium that
allows us to get the most accurate solutions.
MOEA starts with a random population of 100 individuals progressing in each
evaluation until the front of optimal solutions is found.
The variables of the problem have not been constrained, maximum and minimum
limits have been established to obtain coherent solutions.
Fig. 5 shows the obtained solutions for a street with a single-side, double side
staggered, or double-side coupled luminaire arrangement.
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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II

Fig. 5. Outputs of the MOEA for the most typical lighting arrangements; one-sided (black points), two-sided coupled (blue points), and two-sided
staggered (red points) installations. Each of the points corresponds to an optimal solution in terms of efficiency and uniformity. (For interpretation of
the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II
Efficiency and uniformity are opposite in lighting installations.
That means raise of one yields to the decrease of the other.
Therefore, the obtained curves represent the best option for energy efficiency and
uniformity.
These solutions are for the same street illuminated,
By different lighting configurations, such as single-side, double side staggered
and double-side coupled.
By different light sources, such as High Pressure Sodium Lamps (HPS) of 70,
100 and 150 W.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II

Fig. 6. Polar intensity diagrams of the luminaires of 70, 100 and 150W high pressure sodium lamps. The luminaires are the
same manufacturer.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.2 Relationships between luminaire height and average illuminance
Extracted the points in Fig. 5 with a uniformity higher than 0.4
Solutions are plots in terms of the height of the luminaires and the average
illuminance on the street.
Scatter plots are shown in Figs. 7 9.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.2 Relationships between luminaire height and average illuminance

Fig. 7. Linear regression analyses between average illuminance and luminaire height for the HPS 70W lamp in the most typical lighting arrangements.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.2 Relationships between luminaire height and average illuminance

Fig. 8. Linear regression analyses between average illuminance and luminaire height for the HPS 100W lamp in the most typical lighting
arrangements.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.2 Relationships between luminaire height and average illuminance

Fig. 9. Linear regression analyses between average illuminance and luminaire height for the HPS 150W lamp in the most typical lighting arrangements.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.2 Relationships between luminaire height and average illuminance
Linear regression analysis showed a significant very strong correlation (R2 > 0.85)
and a clear trend in between luminaire height and Average illuminance.
Mathematically, the relationships between the illuminance and the height of a single
light source is given by,

Where,

E = Illuminance

I = Light intensity of source

d = Luminous source distance


The linear trend in Figs. 79 is because the solutions obtained with the algorithm
have different spacing between luminaries, and also the spacing between luminaries
is a free variable that is not constrained in the optimization process.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.3. Relationships between luminaires spacing and average illuminance
Extracted the points in Fig. 5 with a uniformity higher than 0.4.
Solutions are plots in terms of the luminaire spacing and the average illuminance on
the street.
Scatter plots are shown in Figs. 1012.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.3. Relationships between luminaires spacing and average illuminance

Fig. 10. Linear regression analyses between average illuminance and luminaire spacing for the HPS 70W lamp in the most typical lighting
arrangements.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.3. Relationships between luminaires spacing and average illuminance

Fig. 11. Linear regression analyses between average illuminance and luminaire spacing for the HPS 100W lamp in the most typical lighting
arrangements.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.3. Relationships between luminaires spacing and average illuminance

Fig. 12. Linear regression analyses between average illuminance and luminaire spacing for the HPS 150W lamp in the most typical lighting
arrangements.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.0 Analysis of the MOEA output data


3.3. Relationships between luminaires spacing and average illuminance
Most of the relationship showed a very strong correlation.
The worse case was in the two-side staggered for HPS 150W lamp, where
relationships showed a weak correlation.
However, 90% of the solutions were found between spacing of 10.5 and 13.5 m,
therefore the relationship trend is very evident.
In here also observe a linear relationship, because the height of the light sources is a
free variable used by the algorithm to obtain the most efficient solutions.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.0 The Model


a, b, c & d can
be found
From Linear
Regression
Analysis

Luminare spacing (S) and


Height (H) can be easily
calculate

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.0 The Model


And also there is a relationship in between road width and the luminare height.
This is most commonly used while designing.

Tables 57 lists the installation parameters for each lamp as derived from the linear
regression data.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.0 The Model

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.0 The Model

4.1 Example of application


The model was validated by testing it on a roadway illuminated with HPS
70W lamps.
Average illuminance ()

= 20lux

Overall uniformity ()

0.4

Street width (W)

= 7m

The characteristic parameters (a,b,c &d) of the luminaire shown in


Table 5.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.0 The Model


4.1 Example of application
By using following equations,

Following solutions were observed,

According to the Table No. 04 results, One sided arrangement is the best
option with spacing between luminairs around 16m and mounting height
around 9.4m.
DIALux simulation was done to verify the obtained results from the
parameter relationship method.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.0 The Model


4.1 Example of application
Simulation results obtained with DIALux for one sided installation. Parameter of the
design (H=9.4m , S=16m and road width 7m).

Fig. 13. Simulation result obtained with DIALux for a one-sided installation. The parameters of the design are, 9.4 m mounting height and 16 m spacing
between luminaires in a street with 7 m width.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.0 The Model


4.1 Example of application
If the road width change to 14m for same 70W luminair then Only the
width/height ratio will change as follows.

According to the Table No. 04 results, Both two sided staggered and two
sided coupled configurations are possible. In this case we have to select
most efficient lighting configuration by using SLEEC indicator.
In this case it is two sided coupled which is having SE=0.032 W/lux..
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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.0 The Model


4.1 Example of application
One sided configuration is ruled out because of the ratio width to height is
outside its correspondence range . Following results were observed from
the simulations,

= 14lux

Uniformity = 0.24
SE=0.0017W/lux.One sided configuration is the best energy efficient
lighting system. But not capable of provide desired illuminace and
uniformity for class CE2 lighting.
This indicates the parameter relationship method using here is capable of
provide best uniformity and efficient lighting systems.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.0 The Model


4.1 Example of application
Simulation results obtained with DIALux for two side coupled installation.
Parameter of the design (H=8.2m , S=17.4 m and road width 14m)

Fig. 14. Simulation result obtained with DIALux in the case of a two-sided coupled installation. The parameters of the design are, 8.2 m mounting
height and 17.4 m spacing between luminaires in a street with 14 m width.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.0 The Model


4.1 Example of application
Simulation results obtained with DIALux for one sided installation.
Parameter of the design (H=9.4m , S=16 m and road width 14m)

Fig. 15. Simulation result obtained with DIALux in the case of a one-sided coupled installation. The parameters of the design are, 9.4 m mounting
height and 16 m spacing between luminaires in a street with 14 m width.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.0 The Model


4.1 Example of application
In summary, the method follows the following steps:
Calculation of spacing of luminaires S and mounting height H,
applying Eq. (1) according to the street lighting class (or average
illuminance recommended), with a, b, c, and d parameters provided
by the manufacturer of the luminaire.
Calculation of street width and mounting height ratio in order to
decide the configuration (one-sided, two-sided staggered or twosided coupled).
In case of having one solution the procedure has finished.
Otherwise, we choose the most efficient solution.

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A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

5.0 Conclusions
The obtained relationships are a quick, inexpensive, and reliable method.
Guarantees maximum efficiency
can be easily calculate the main parameters of any public lighting installation without
the use of computer tools.
excellent cost-effective tool that not only saves money but also contributes to
sustainable public lighting.
It can be applied to other spaces, such as tunnel or indoor lighting after further
developing.
really useful in emergency situations such a natural disasters.
Luminaire parameters (a, b, c & d) shall have to be mentioned in
manufacturers data sheet.

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THANK YOU

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