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Uploaded by Gayashan Kulathunga

New parameter relationships for public lighting design (i.e. average illuminance, luminaire spacing, and
mounting height) were calculated from a large sample of data sets optimized with a multi-objective evolutionary
algorithm. Optimization criteria included maximum energy efficiency and overall uniformity.
The relations thus derived are a simple and elegant method for designing any type of public lighting
installation without the need to use complex, expensive and/or unavailable software. It would therefore
be desirable that manufacturers include such parameters in the product datasheet in order to make the
calculation easier.

New parameter relationships for public lighting design (i.e. average illuminance, luminaire spacing, and
mounting height) were calculated from a large sample of data sets optimized with a multi-objective evolutionary
algorithm. Optimization criteria included maximum energy efficiency and overall uniformity.
The relations thus derived are a simple and elegant method for designing any type of public lighting
installation without the need to use complex, expensive and/or unavailable software. It would therefore
be desirable that manufacturers include such parameters in the product datasheet in order to make the
calculation easier.

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parameter relationships

O. Rabazaa*,A. Pea-Garcaa,F. Prez-Ocnb,D. GmezLorentea

a - Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, Severo Ochoa Str. s/n., 18071 Granada, Spain

b - Department of Optics, University of Granada, Severo Ochoa Str. s/n., 18071 Granada, Spain

Presented by

JAYAWARDANE A.J.S.

JAYAWARDANE A.K.H.

KULATHUNGA H.G.G.

02.12.2016

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

1.0 Introduction

Public lighting consumes considerable amount of electricity.

Therefore, design of energy efficient public lighting is a necessary requirement.

Most of software applications for public lighting design are targeted to achieve,

Uniformity.

Unfortunately, Doesnt consider the energy efficiency of the installation.

Previously,

Research Topic

design based on a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm.

Conducted by

Results

maximum uniformity and efficiency, based on a given set

of luminaire characteristics.

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

1.0 Introduction

In this research,

A Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm were used.

It used following equations,

Where,

H

= Luminaire height

= Average illuminance

Luminaire spacing, height, and illuminance, which are some of the main outputs

in street lighting calculations.

Once it found the parameters it is very simple to design efficient street lighting.

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

Roadway lighting installations are characterized by,

Geometrical parameters.

Light distribution of the luminaires and their light sources.

The requirements for the performance of such installations have been specified by the

International Commission on Illumination (CIE).

It is based technical parameters of the light.

Those technical parameters are,

Illuminance-based (where the illuminance is the luminous flux received per

unit of surface).

luminance-based (based on the luminous flux emitted within a given solid

angle per unit of surface in a given direction).

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

Illuminance based parameters were considered in this research.

Overall illuminance uniformity ().

Where,

= Minimum illuminance

= Average illuminance

Low uniformity ratios imply frequent changes of contrasting.

It causes enormous eye discomfort, leading to stress and tiredness.

Energy efficiency of the lighting installation ().

Where,

= Total illuminated surface

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

Fig. 1. One-sided (a), two-sided coupled (b) and two-sided staggered (c) installations with the individual rectangle for each luminaire is represented.

influenced by a given luminaire as shown,

Where,

= Surface of an individual rectangle

6

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

According to the international standards,

Overall illuminance uniformity () 0.4

Characteristics of the street to be illuminated.

Street dimensions, Desired average illuminance

Configuration of the installation

One-sided, Two-sided staggered, Two-sided coupled

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

The main results of the calculation,

Spacing between luminaires.

Height of luminaires.

Overall illuminance uniformity.

2.1 Definition of lighting classes

CIE recommendations for the street lighting designs is based on,

Luminance - Used for motor vehicle traffic.

Illuminance

ex: junctions, minor and residential roads, urban centers, and foot and cycle

paths.

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

2.1 Definition of lighting classes

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

2.2 Energy classification of street lighting installations

The approach adopted in this research is based on the Street Lighting Energy

Efficiency Criterion (SLEEC) (CEN, 2008).

The formula for the SLEEC indicator depends on the photometric measurement used

in the calculation of street lighting for specific road classes.

Where,

= Energy efficiency of street lighting

10

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

2.1 Definition of lighting classes

with a letter from A to G, indicating the electricity

consumption of the appliance.

11

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

MOEA are most commonly used to solve the lighting problems.

Examples ,

Mixtures of multiple narrow-band LEDs were optimized with a differential

evolution algorithm (Soltic & Chalmers, 2012).

To calculate the optimal lighting for an outdoor tennis court or a football field

(Corcione & Fontana, 2003).

Color quality of LED lighting, based on the memory color quality metric (Smet,

Ryckaert,Pointer, Deconinck, & Hanselaer, 2012).

Above examples prove the effectiveness of MOEAs to solve multi-objective

optimization problems.

A well known MOEA called Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm NSGA-II

(Deb, Pratap, Agarwal, & Meyarivan, 2002) to optimize the public lighting.

12

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II

Input parameters,

Street dimensions.

Luminaire characteristics (e.g. spatial light distribution of the luminous flux).

Required illuminance values.

Objective of this research is to evaluate the influence of the location and

characteristics of the luminaires on the performance of the roadway lighting system.

NSGA II used in this study has two functions.

13

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II

14

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II

Calculation of average illuminance of the street,

Computes the surface of the area between two consecutive luminaries on the

same side of the street

Consider the meter to meter grid for the whole surface and calculates the

value of illuminance in each point of this grid.

illuminances in the points of the grid.

15

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II

Calculation of efficiency of the street.

Dimensions of the individual rectangle according to the installation

configuration as shown in Fig. 1.

Number of luminaries which contribute in the calculation of the illuminance

Efficiency can be calculated using,

16

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II

The individuals in this MOEA are formed by two attributes.

Spacing between luminaries.

Height of the luminaries.

Spacing between luminaries.

Directly affects to the to the average illuminance and also to the uniformity.

The algorithm ignores the solutions with an average illuminance that is

different from the required or with very low efficiency, which happens when

the spacing is very large or very small.

Therefore this variable does not have constrains.

17

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II

Height of the luminaries,

Determined by the length of the available supports or poles in the market.

The algorithm ignores the solutions with unfeasible heights during its search.

Since both objectives are contradictory, the MOEA must keep an equilibrium that

allows us to get the most accurate solutions.

MOEA starts with a random population of 100 individuals progressing in each

evaluation until the front of optimal solutions is found.

The variables of the problem have not been constrained, maximum and minimum

limits have been established to obtain coherent solutions.

Fig. 5 shows the obtained solutions for a street with a single-side, double side

staggered, or double-side coupled luminaire arrangement.

18

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II

Fig. 5. Outputs of the MOEA for the most typical lighting arrangements; one-sided (black points), two-sided coupled (blue points), and two-sided

staggered (red points) installations. Each of the points corresponds to an optimal solution in terms of efficiency and uniformity. (For interpretation of

the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

19

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II

Efficiency and uniformity are opposite in lighting installations.

That means raise of one yields to the decrease of the other.

Therefore, the obtained curves represent the best option for energy efficiency and

uniformity.

These solutions are for the same street illuminated,

By different lighting configurations, such as single-side, double side staggered

and double-side coupled.

By different light sources, such as High Pressure Sodium Lamps (HPS) of 70,

100 and 150 W.

20

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.1 Optimization process with NGSA-II

Fig. 6. Polar intensity diagrams of the luminaires of 70, 100 and 150W high pressure sodium lamps. The luminaires are the

same manufacturer.

21

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.2 Relationships between luminaire height and average illuminance

Extracted the points in Fig. 5 with a uniformity higher than 0.4

Solutions are plots in terms of the height of the luminaires and the average

illuminance on the street.

Scatter plots are shown in Figs. 7 9.

22

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.2 Relationships between luminaire height and average illuminance

Fig. 7. Linear regression analyses between average illuminance and luminaire height for the HPS 70W lamp in the most typical lighting arrangements.

23

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.2 Relationships between luminaire height and average illuminance

Fig. 8. Linear regression analyses between average illuminance and luminaire height for the HPS 100W lamp in the most typical lighting

arrangements.

24

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.2 Relationships between luminaire height and average illuminance

Fig. 9. Linear regression analyses between average illuminance and luminaire height for the HPS 150W lamp in the most typical lighting arrangements.

25

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.2 Relationships between luminaire height and average illuminance

Linear regression analysis showed a significant very strong correlation (R2 > 0.85)

and a clear trend in between luminaire height and Average illuminance.

Mathematically, the relationships between the illuminance and the height of a single

light source is given by,

Where,

E = Illuminance

The linear trend in Figs. 79 is because the solutions obtained with the algorithm

have different spacing between luminaries, and also the spacing between luminaries

is a free variable that is not constrained in the optimization process.

26

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.3. Relationships between luminaires spacing and average illuminance

Extracted the points in Fig. 5 with a uniformity higher than 0.4.

Solutions are plots in terms of the luminaire spacing and the average illuminance on

the street.

Scatter plots are shown in Figs. 1012.

27

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.3. Relationships between luminaires spacing and average illuminance

Fig. 10. Linear regression analyses between average illuminance and luminaire spacing for the HPS 70W lamp in the most typical lighting

arrangements.

28

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.3. Relationships between luminaires spacing and average illuminance

Fig. 11. Linear regression analyses between average illuminance and luminaire spacing for the HPS 100W lamp in the most typical lighting

arrangements.

29

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.3. Relationships between luminaires spacing and average illuminance

Fig. 12. Linear regression analyses between average illuminance and luminaire spacing for the HPS 150W lamp in the most typical lighting

arrangements.

30

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

3.3. Relationships between luminaires spacing and average illuminance

Most of the relationship showed a very strong correlation.

The worse case was in the two-side staggered for HPS 150W lamp, where

relationships showed a weak correlation.

However, 90% of the solutions were found between spacing of 10.5 and 13.5 m,

therefore the relationship trend is very evident.

In here also observe a linear relationship, because the height of the light sources is a

free variable used by the algorithm to obtain the most efficient solutions.

31

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

a, b, c & d can

be found

From Linear

Regression

Analysis

Height (H) can be easily

calculate

32

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

And also there is a relationship in between road width and the luminare height.

This is most commonly used while designing.

Tables 57 lists the installation parameters for each lamp as derived from the linear

regression data.

33

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

34

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

The model was validated by testing it on a roadway illuminated with HPS

70W lamps.

Average illuminance ()

= 20lux

Overall uniformity ()

0.4

= 7m

Table 5.

35

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.1 Example of application

By using following equations,

According to the Table No. 04 results, One sided arrangement is the best

option with spacing between luminairs around 16m and mounting height

around 9.4m.

DIALux simulation was done to verify the obtained results from the

parameter relationship method.

36

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.1 Example of application

Simulation results obtained with DIALux for one sided installation. Parameter of the

design (H=9.4m , S=16m and road width 7m).

Fig. 13. Simulation result obtained with DIALux for a one-sided installation. The parameters of the design are, 9.4 m mounting height and 16 m spacing

between luminaires in a street with 7 m width.

37

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.1 Example of application

If the road width change to 14m for same 70W luminair then Only the

width/height ratio will change as follows.

According to the Table No. 04 results, Both two sided staggered and two

sided coupled configurations are possible. In this case we have to select

most efficient lighting configuration by using SLEEC indicator.

In this case it is two sided coupled which is having SE=0.032 W/lux..

39

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.1 Example of application

One sided configuration is ruled out because of the ratio width to height is

outside its correspondence range . Following results were observed from

the simulations,

= 14lux

Uniformity = 0.24

SE=0.0017W/lux.One sided configuration is the best energy efficient

lighting system. But not capable of provide desired illuminace and

uniformity for class CE2 lighting.

This indicates the parameter relationship method using here is capable of

provide best uniformity and efficient lighting systems.

40

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.1 Example of application

Simulation results obtained with DIALux for two side coupled installation.

Parameter of the design (H=8.2m , S=17.4 m and road width 14m)

Fig. 14. Simulation result obtained with DIALux in the case of a two-sided coupled installation. The parameters of the design are, 8.2 m mounting

height and 17.4 m spacing between luminaires in a street with 14 m width.

41

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.1 Example of application

Simulation results obtained with DIALux for one sided installation.

Parameter of the design (H=9.4m , S=16 m and road width 14m)

Fig. 15. Simulation result obtained with DIALux in the case of a one-sided coupled installation. The parameters of the design are, 9.4 m mounting

height and 16 m spacing between luminaires in a street with 14 m width.

42

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

4.1 Example of application

In summary, the method follows the following steps:

Calculation of spacing of luminaires S and mounting height H,

applying Eq. (1) according to the street lighting class (or average

illuminance recommended), with a, b, c, and d parameters provided

by the manufacturer of the luminaire.

Calculation of street width and mounting height ratio in order to

decide the configuration (one-sided, two-sided staggered or twosided coupled).

In case of having one solution the procedure has finished.

Otherwise, we choose the most efficient solution.

43

A simple method for designing efficient public lighting, based on new parameter relationships

5.0 Conclusions

The obtained relationships are a quick, inexpensive, and reliable method.

Guarantees maximum efficiency

can be easily calculate the main parameters of any public lighting installation without

the use of computer tools.

excellent cost-effective tool that not only saves money but also contributes to

sustainable public lighting.

It can be applied to other spaces, such as tunnel or indoor lighting after further

developing.

really useful in emergency situations such a natural disasters.

Luminaire parameters (a, b, c & d) shall have to be mentioned in

manufacturers data sheet.

44

THANK YOU

45

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