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Clinical Aspect of Yoga

Dr. W.J. WIckramarachchi


Ph.D (India), M.D.(Ay) Kln
Senior lecturer
Gampaha Wickramarachchi Ayurveda
Institute
University of Kelaniya
Yakkala

Introduction
Yoga is the product of the perennial
wisdom of India
Origin of Yoga- at least three
thousand years before Christ.
Yoga is basically developed as a
Moksha Shastra Which helps to over
come all Kinds Of Suffering.
In India it is a Way of Healthy Living.

YOGA IS AN ART AND


SCIENCE OF HEALTHY LIVING

Yoga ()
"Yogas chitta vriddhi Niridhah" Patanjali
Yoga is a total science of strengthening and
improving the physical, mental and spiritual
states of being. (with a view to attain a state of
permanent peace. (Moksha)
The disciplines of yoga pertaining to the physical
aspects of life focus at improving the health and
augmenting the strength of the body.
The first phase of yoga-sadhana deals with the
practice of asanas, pranayama and several

The physical exercises and specific postures of


the body practiced through different asanas,
bandhas, and mudras activate the intra-body
and brain functions.
And help activation of other dormant vital
energy centers.
The exercises (kriyas) like neti, dheti, vasti,
nyauli, kapalbhati, etc, taught
under"Hathayoga"for internal purification of the
body-system also fall under this category.
The disciplines of fasting, austerity, penance,
etc help in cleansing the body and the mental
domains and enhancing self-control.

Yogasana
What is Asana?
Asanas are yoga postures or positions or
special patterns of the body that stabilize the
mind through static stretching.
Yogasana = Sthiram sukhmasanam
Patanjali in ashtanga yoga
Asana should be Stable, comfortable and
effortless pose.
Yogasanas are psycho-physical in nature.
They are not mere physical exercises.

Asanas are broadly


classified as:
a] Asanas for Meditation
b] Asanas for Relaxation
c] Asanas for prevention of disease
and promotion of health.

YOGA WORKS BUT HOW?

Kriyas
and Dhyana

Asanas, Pranayama

Balance Endocrinal and


Nervous control
Increases Mind and Body
Control
Calm
Refresh

Relax

Health , Happiness and

YOGA THERAPY WHY ?

Improves the overall functioning of the


Organs.
Improves Circulation of Blood in the body.
Acts as an efficient stress buster.
Brings about a better neuro-muscular
coordination.
Strengthens the immunity.
Decreases overall workload to the organs.
Provides psychological well-being.

DESIGNING YOGA
THERAPY
PHYSIQUE
(SAMA
PSYCHE
DOSHA
(PRASSA
AGNI,
NA
DHATU,
MANAH)
MALA)
BIOENER
SPIRIT
GY
(PRASSA
(PRANA)
NA
ATMA)
EMOTIONS
(PRASSAN
A
INDRIYA)

HEALT
H

Shaucha
(Cleanliness)
Mitahar
(Balanced Diet)
Proper
Breathing
Yoga Practice
Achar (Right
Conduct)
Vichara (Right
Thought)
Vyavahara
(Behaviour)

WHAT WE NEED TO BE
HEALTHY?
INGESTION
DIGESTION

ASSIMILATIO
N

CIRCULATION

RESEARCH
REVIEWS

BIO-CHEMICAL EFFECTS

Glucose & Sodium decreases


Total cholesterol & Triglycerides decreases.
HDL cholesterol increases.
LDL & VLDL cholesterol decreases.
Catecholamines decreases.
Hematocrit increases.
Lymphocyte count increases.
Total white blood cell count decreases.
Thyroxin increases.
Total serum protein increases
Hemoglobin increases.

PSYCHOLOGICAL
EFFECTS

Social adjustment increases.


Anxiety and depression decrease.
Hostility decrease
Mood improves and
subjective well-being increases.
Self-acceptance and selfactualization increase.

PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

Pulse rate & Respiratory rate decreases


Blood pressure decreases.
EEG - alpha waves increase
Cardiovascular efficiency increases.
Musculoskeletal flexibility & joint range of motion
increase
Gastrointestinal & Endocrine function normalizes
Immunity increases.
Pain decreases.
Endurance increases.
Energy level increases

Therapeutic aspect of
Yoga
Clinical studies have clearly
demonstrated the therapeutic
potential of yoga in the treatment of
COPD like asthma and bronchitis.
Similar effects have been found out
in low back pain, diabetes, migraine
and stress related psychosomatic
disorders.

Yoga is also effective in the management of following disorders:

Respiratory System - Nasal Allergy and


Asthma,
Cardiovascular System - Hypertension and
coronary Artery Diseases,
Digestive System - Hyperacidity, Irritable
bowel syndrome, Flatulence, Constipation
Reproductive System - infertility,
menstrual disorders,
Endocrine System - Diabetes, Obesity,
Thyroid(Hypo and Hyper),

Contd..,
Nevous System - Epilepsy, Migraine,
Psychiatry - Anxiety, depression,
stress, Insomnia,
Musculo Skeletal System - Arthritis,
Back pain, Sciatica, Spondylosis,
Pregnancy - Role of stress in
problems of pregnancy, Labour
Special senses - Yoga for eyes

Pranayama

Pranayama
Pranayama is basically an exercise of
enhancing and harmonizing the flow of
prana (vital energy) within the body through
controlled breathing and concentration.
Cleansing the bronchial tube, increasing the
lung-capacity and balancing the inflow of
oxygen and outflow of carbon-dioxide are
natural offshoots of its practice as per the
pace and pattern (of breathing) suitable to
the patient.

Padmasana

Padma lotus
final position resembles a lotus.

Padmasana
Benefits:
As the backbone is kept erect in this
asana, its functioning is greatly
improved.
Tones the coccygeal and sacral
nerves by supplying them with an
extra flow of blood.

Contd.., Padmasana
Dnyana Mudra further helps;
Stabilizing pulse beats.
Strain on muscles is reduced, which in turn
reduces strain on heart.
Breathing slows down,
Collective effect of all this is one can achieve
concentration of mind.(mental calmness and
tranquility)
Helps to relieve constipation and improves
digestive process.
Precaution
This asana is very simple and anyone can practice.

Urdva-Hastottasana

Urdhva upward
Hasta hands
Uttana stretched or raising up

Urdva-Hastottasana
Benefits:
Relieves constipation very quickly.
Makes the waist slim, the chest brode
and removes fatty deposits on the
hips the buttocks.
Increases height and relieves painful
condition of the ribs.

Ardhachakrasana

Ardha half
Chakra wheel
In this posture body is assuming the shape
of half wheel.

Ardhachakrasana
Benefits:
Remove fat from the sides of the
body.
Helps to get rid of stiffness in the hip
joints and low back.
Useful in asthma as it helps to
expand the chest.
Good practice for low back pain.

Padahastasana

Pada foot
Hasta hand
In this posture hands are brought near the
feet.

Padahastasana
Benefits:
Relieves stomach pain, tones the liver,
spleen and kidneys.
Soothes the brain cells.
Spinal nerves are rejuvenated and
reinvigorated.
Stretches the hamstring,
Strengthens the thigh,calves , knees
and hip.
Helps to increase the height in children.

Trikonasana

Tri three
Kona angle
In this Asana body takes shape of an
extended angle, giving an intense
stretch to trunk and legs.

Trikonasana
Benefits:
The stretching of the body has good
effect on the muscles of those parts
and improves their functioning.
This asana is useful for the joints of the
waist.
Precaution
Persons having complaints on their
spinal column should do this Asana
under the guidance of Yoga Expert.

Uttanapadasana

Uttana- raising up
Pda foot
legs are raised upwards

Benefits:
Thigh muscles and stomach muscles are
stretched.
The strain reaches inner organs like small
intestines, enzyme producing glands and other
organs and helps increases their capacity.
The vertical position of the legs help improve
the blood circulation.

Precaution
One should avoid movement of legs with jerk or
speed. The movements should be controlled
otherwise this asana can strain muscles.

Pawanmuktasana

Pawana wind
Mukta release
When it practiced, It helps
to release the excessive
gasses from the body.

Pawanmuktasana

Benefits:
Body feels light and digestion improves.
Helps to correct neuromuscular disorders.
Strengthens the abdominal muscles.
This improves the digestion system and
helps Removes constipation.
Helps to get rid of excess fat in the
abdominal region.
Due to systematic pressure on the belly, the
trapped gases in large intestine are released.

Pawanmuktasana
Precaution
People who have undergone an
operation on belly or suffering from
hernia and piles, etc.
should perform this asana after
consulting some Yoga Expert.
Similarly, the pregnant women
should also not practice it.

Halasana

Hala plough
The body takes the
shape of the Indian
plough.

Halasana
Benefits:
Improve flexibility of the spine.
Improves the tone and strength of the back
muscles as the back is folded, as well as the
leg muscles and abdominal muscles. It also
removes the rigidity of the back muscles.
Improves the function of the thyroid,
parathyroid and pituitary glands.
All of the other endocrine glands are
regulated by these main glands and so the
overall function of the endocrine system is
improved.

Halasana

stimulating metabolism and immunity


Activates digestion and helps with
constipation,
Improves the efficiency of all the abdominal
organs such as the spleen, pancreas, liver
and kidneys.
The breathing movements of the diaphragm
help to massage the abdominal organs
Nourishes the nerves of the spinal column
and muscles of the back.
Counters tendencies of piles.
Calms the mind and reduces stress

Halasana
Benefits for Women
Due to the compression of the pelvic area it
improves the circulation and tone to the
reproductive organs, increasing their efficiency.
Can help to strengthen the lower back and
sacral area, preventing lower back pain during
menstruation.
Therapeutic applications
Asthma, Cough and cold, Constipation,
Menstrual disorders

Contd.., Halasana
Precautions and Contra-indications
Should be avoided during pregnancy and
menstruation, high blood pressure and
brain diseases.
Should be avoided if suffering from an
enlarged thyroid, spleen or liver as well as
cervical spondylitis, slipped disc, neck
problems, headache and weak blood
vessels in the eyes.

Chakrasana

Chakra wheel
Body is assuming the shape of a full wheel.

Chakrasana
Benefits:
Old age is delayed by the practice of this asana.
Directly having the effect on the vertebral
column, on account of which body becomes
resilient.
Waist slim & chest broad.
Effect on the knees, upper limbs & shoulders.
The navel region gets rightly positioned when
this asana is practiced.
Good for relieving back pain, neck pain & leg
pains.

Chakrasana
Strengthen the leg muscles.
This pose is extremely beneficial for those
who sit long hours in front of the desk or
computer as they usually hunch over the
desk all day long.
Therapeutic application
Stress
Anxiety

Contd.., Chakrasana
Precautions & contra-indications

Serious spinal column ailments, such as


cervical and lumbar spondylities should avoid
doing this pose
If there is not much spine flexibility at the
beginning, one should not force or push the
body into doing the pose.
Because of the deep arch to the spine, it is best
to do a counter pose, such as Matsyasana(Fish
pose) after practicing Chakrasana, to relieve
any strain from the spine.

Bhujangasana

Bhujanga Cobra
Resembles the Hooded
Snake.

Bhujangasana
Benefits:
Helps to remove backache and neck ache.
Keep the spine supple and healthy. By arching
the spine blood circulation is increased to that
region toning the nerves along the spinal column
and improving the communication between the
brain and the rest of the body.
The pressure on the abdomen is also beneficial to
the abdominal organs and in particular the
digestive organs,
it stimulates the appetite, relieves flatulence
and constipation.
Tones the kidneys which help with purification of
blood, removing any stagnant blood and
improving the health of the whole body.

Contd.., Bhujangasana

Strengthens the adrenal glands which


is responsible for secretions of
adrenaline, cortisol and other stress
hormones, the balancing effect on the
hormone secretions.
Tones the liver, making it beneficial for
those with a sluggish liver.
Helps the functioning of thyroid gland,
which is responsible for metabolic
activities.

Contd.., Bhujangasana

Expands the chest which encourages


deep breathing as well as helping to
correct rounded shoulders.
Useful for slipped disc and sciatica as
it relieves the pain and can also
relocate the slipped disc.
In normal day-to-day life we do a lot of
forward bending but not much
backward bending, therefore it is good
to practice for a healthy back and to
give general balance to the body.

Contd.., Bhujangasana

Therapeutic applications
Back ache Neck pain
Gynaecological disorders
Dyspepsia, Anorexia Flatulence,indigestion
Relieves Constipation
Sluggish liver
Impure blood
Stress
Slipped disc- sciatica & low back pain.
makes the waist slender & chest broad.

Contd.., Bhujangasana

Precautions and Contra-indications


severe problems of the spine, stomach
ulcers, hernias or pregnant women.
people with heart diseases.
those who have undergone surgeries of
spine, brain, abdomen, heart and lungs.

Contd.., Bhujangasana
Benefits for Women
Tones the ovaries and the
uterus.
Helps to alleviate gynaecological
disorders such as leucorrhea
(irregular vaginal discharge due
to an imbalance in oestrogen),
dysmenorrhoea (painful
menstruation) and amenorrhoea
(absent menstruation).

Shalabhasana

Shalabha locust
Shape of the body resembles a locust.
This Asana mainly centers the lower
vertebra of the spinal cord and the
muscles of the abdomen and thighs.

Shalabhasana
Benefits:

Strengthens the muscles of the abdomen.


Improves digestion & remove constipation.
Gives strength to lungs.
Precaution
People suffering from Back problems, TB in
intestine, Ulcer in stomach, harnia should consult
Yoga expert before practicing this asana.
Jerks and unbearable strains should be avoided.

Dhanurasana

Dhanur bow
Body takes a shape
of a bow. Mainly the
weight is taken by
the abdomen.

Dhanurasana
Benefits:
This has favorable effect on enzyme producing
organs, liver, pancreas, small intestine and big
intestine.
As a result of this the concerned organs become
more active and efficient.
Stimulates gastric secretions.
Liver & pancreas are made to smooth functioning.
Remove constipation.
Restores the displaced navel to its normal position.
Helps to treat low back pain.
Blood circulation in arms and legs is improved.

Dhanurasana
Precaution
People suffering from Back problems, TB in
intestine, ulcer in stomach, harnia should consult
Yoga expert before practicing this asana.
Jerks and unbearable strains should be avoided.
People suffering from Abdomen problems should
not do this asana without consulting Yoga expert.

Sarvangasana
Sarvang all parts of the body
This asana effects almost all the
parts of the body.

Sarvangasana

Benefits
Improves circulation of blood.
Makes the spine resilient.
improves the function of the thyroid,
parathyroid and pituitary glands due to the
increase oxygen and blood.
All of the other endocrine glands are
regulated by the pituitary gland and so the
overall function of the endocrine system is
improved.
This results in the improved functioning of
all other systems of the body and the
reduction of emotional and mental stress .

Sarvangasana
Stagnant blood from the lower regions
of the body, i.e. legs and abdomen is
drained to the heart thereby improving
the supply of fresh blood to these parts
and the whole circulatory system.
Blood supply to the head area i.e. brain,
eyes, ears, nose and throat is improved
thereby improving their functioning.
Therefore all of the pelvic and
abdominal area circulation, ear, throat
and nose ailments are improved.

Sarvangasana
The lung capacity is increased as the
diaphragm, has to work against gravity in this
posture, this helps in the abdominal respiration
and is therefore helpful in the treatment of
asthma.
Toxins in the respiratory system are drained
thereby improving the respiratory system.
Prevents and cures varicose veins.
Detoxification of the body due to improved
efficiency of the organs of the body which leads
to youthfulness and anti-ageing effects.
Normalizes body weight due to its effect on the
thyroid.

Sarvangasana
Due to the increased blood flow to the
head the mind is tranquilized, stress
and psychological disturbances are
removed.
The increased blood flow can be
beneficial for those who suffer from
headaches, though it should not be
practiced at the time of headache.
The thymus gland is stimulated which
boosts the immune system.

Sarvangasana
It balances the parathyroid glands which
ensures regeneration and normal
development of the bones.
It releases the normal gravitational pressure
from the anus muscles which helps with
haemorrhoids.
The nerves passing through the neck are
toned and the neck flexibility is increased.
The digestive system is greatly improved
due to the increase in blood circulation and
drainage of stagnant blood.

Sarvangasana
Benefits for Women
It is beneficial for the reproductive system as
there is fresh blood to the pelvic region as the
stagnant blood is flushed from the organs and
therefore increased efficiency of the
reproductive organs.
It strengthens the uterine ligaments as the
gravity acting on the ligaments in
Sarvangasan is in the opposite direction.
It improves the functioning of the ovaries.
It helps to balance the moods and calm the
mind.

Sarvangasana

Therapeutic applications
Thyroid disorders
Asthma
Reproductive problems
Headache Haemorrhoids, Varicose
veins Prevention of cough and colds
Diabetes, Diseases like dyspepsia,
constipation, obesity, Hernia

Sarvangasana
Precautions and Contra-indications
People suffering from high blood pressure, heart
conditions or brain diseases.
Should be avoided during menstruation and
pregnancy.
Should be avoided if suffering from a very
enlarged thyroid, enlarged spleen or liver as
well as cervical spondylitis, slipped disc,
headache and weak blood vessels in the eyes.

Matsyasana

Matsya fish
Fish posture.

Benefits: Matsyasana
Help improve the circulation in thyroids
and pituitary glands and assuring their
healthy functioning.
Ocular defects can be corrected by this
asana.
Effective asana for ailments of throat like
tonsilitis.
Spine becomes flexible.
Also the thigh & abdomen muscles are
stretched systematically.

Matsyasana
Precaution
The weight over the head should be taken
out slowly.
The support of the hands should be
removed only when the head is completely
ready to bear the weight.
Also while releasing the position, one
should avoid jerks and speedy movements.
Maintain the asana until it is bearable and
pleasant.

Ushtrasana

Ustra camel
Body resembles the shape of a Camel.

Ushtrasana
Benefits

Efficiency of digestion and reproductive system is increased.


Alleviates constipation.
Increases lung capacity.
Vertebrae are loosened, spinal nerves relaxed.
Good for minor back ache, rounded back, drooping shoulder.
The front of the neck is stretched, strengthens the
concerned organs and regulates the thyroid function.
Useful for constipation and female reproductive problems of
women at pelvic region.

Precautions
Severe back ailments, lumbago, enlarged thyroid.

Paschimottasana

Paschima back
Uttana stretched forward
Back is stretched forward

Paschimottasana
Benefits:
Spine become flexible.
the west side gets stretched, they get purified and
their functioning is greatly improved.
the muscles of the front side get contracted and there
is pressure on the lungs, intestines and other internal
juice producing glands.
As a result of this their functioning is also improved.
the troubles concerning the lumber part of the spinal
cord and the digestive system.
Extremely useful for skin diseases.
People prone to excessive sweating are beneficial by
this asana.

Paschimottasana
Precaution
Asana is useful for the troubles of the
spine. Yet people suffering from such
troubles should practice this Asana
only after consulting some Yoga
experts.

Ardha Matsyendrasana

Original Matsyendrasana is difficult


to practice; hence the variation is
Ardha Matsyendrasana.

Ardha Matsyendrasana
Benefits
Increases the elasticity of the spine, tones the spinal
nerves and improves the functioning of the spinal cord.
Stretches the muscles on one side of the body whilst
compressing the muscles on the other side.
Relieves back pain and stiffness from between the
vertebrae.
Useful for slipped disc.
Massages the abdominal organs and increases the
digestive juices making it useful for loss of appetite and
constipation.

Ardha Matsyendrasana
Useful for diabetics, with concentration on the
pancreas.
Regulates the secretion of bile and adrenaline.
Opens the chest and increases the oxygen supply
to the lungs.
Loosens the hip joints, relieving stiffness.
Releases tension in the arms, shoulders, upper
back and neck.
Increases purification of the blood as well as the
internal organs.
Improves round shoulders.

Ardha Matsyendrasana
Benefits for Women
Increases the circulation to the pelvic
region and therefore providing fresh
blood, nutrients and oxygen, improving
the health of the reproductive organs
as well as the urinary system.
Useful for preventing urinary tract
disorders.
Beneficial for menstrual disorders.

Ardha Matsyendrasana

Therapeutic applications
Diabetes Constipation Anorexia
Cervical Spondylitis Urinary tract
disorders Menstrual disorders
Indigestion

Ardha Matsyendrasana
Precautions and Contra-indications
during pregnancy and menstruation due to the
strong twist in the abdomen.
People with Heart, abdominal or brain surgeries
should not practice this asana.
Care should be taken for those with peptic ulcer
or hernia.
Those with severe spinal problems should avoid
and those with mild slipped disc can benefit but
in severe cases it should be avoided.

Gomukhasana

Gomukha cows face


This asana takes the shapes of
Gomukha.

Gomukhasana
Benefits:
Useful for lung diseases.
Patients of asthma and tuberculosis should
practice this asana.
Helps to make spine straight.
Strengthen the muscles of the back and
biceps.
Removes paini n hip and lower extremities.
Relaxes the muscles of the shoulder and neck.
Good for who suffers from arthritis and piles.

Naukasana

Nouka - boat
The body achieves the shape of a yacht.

Naukasana
Internal Effects
In this asana, muscles of legs and hands
are stretched more than Dhanurasana.
The strain reaches inner organs and
increases their capacity.
It also acts on back muscles and helps
remove complaints related to digestive
system

Naukasana
Precaution
People suffering from Back problems,
TB in intestine, ulcer in stomach, harnia
should consult Yoga expert before
practicing this asana.
Jerks and unbearable strains should be
avoided.
People suffering from Abdomen
problems should not do this asana with
out consulting Yoga expert.

Shavasana
Shavasana

Shava dead body


This asana resembles a
dead body.

Shavasana
Benefits:
Every activity inside the body needs oxygen,
supplied through blood circulation. When we
need more oxygen the circulation is increased
which leads to an increase in respiration.
In Shavasana an attempt is made to break this
cycle by slowing down the speed of activities in
the body.
By practicing this asana the internal operations
slow down, slowing the breath and therefore
pacifying the mind. A new cycle is formed.

Shavasana
Leads to a relaxed mind which allows
you to see and relate to the world in a
more realistic light, be more efficient
in work and bring more happiness
into life.
Relaxation of entire nervous system,
body and mind.
Relieves stress on the body and mind.

Shavasana
Shavasana

Removes disturbing thoughts and tensions.


Relaxes the muscles
Beneficial for all stress related ailments.
Rejuvenates the body and mind.
Removes stress and fatigue.
Improves the functioning of the brain.
Decreases high blood pressure.
Useful for preventing and improving heart
complaints.
Can be used for insomnia.

Shavasana
Shavasana

Benefits for Women


very useful during menstruation as it gives
a deep relaxation to the muscles and also
to the mind.
If a women is feeling tearful, angry,
irritable, tired or just plain stressed
Shavasana will help.
It will give the peace and calm needed by
relaxing the muscles, focusing the mind
and getting rid of any anxieties or worries.

Shavasana
Shavasana
Therapeutic applications
All stress related diseases
Fatigue, High blood pressure, Heart
complaints ,Stress, Anxiety, Insomnia
Precautions and Contraindications
Avoid going to sleep as this will
prevent the decrease in nerve
impulses as well as the deep
relaxation.

Shavasana
Help if there is any lower back or pelvic
pain.
During pregnancy it is a great practice to do
at any time of the day, especially if feeling
tired or emotional.
Irregularities in the menstrual cycle.
It is beneficial for emotional disturbances,
stress, anger, depression and frustration,
redirecting the energy and giving a feeling
of calmness and freshness.

THA
NK