Synchronous Generator

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Synchronous Generator

© All Rights Reserved

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internal voltage of Syn.

Generator

Synchronous means

that the electrical

frequency produced

is locked with the

mechanical rate of

rotation of the

generator.

The internal voltage

in SG is given by

following formula:

nm P

120 f

fe

nm

120

P

E A 2N cf K

K : constant represents

construction of machine

: radian /s

voltage of Syn. Generator

3.0

Synchronous means

that the electrical

frequency produced

is locked with the

mechanical rate of

rotation of the

Pnm

P

P n

generator.

fe

fm ( m )

2

2 60

120 f e

nm

P

Example:

120

(r/min)for SG consists of :

- 2 poles, 50 HZ, 2 poles 60 Hz,

- 4 poles 50 HZ, 4 poles 60 Hz

Determine number of poles

for 50 Hz ,operate at 1000

in SG is given by

following formula

EA

2N cf 4.444 N c BAf

2f

N

N c c

2

2

E A K

EA

N = number of turns,

B= flux density,

A = cross sectional area of the magnetic

circuit,

f = frequency,

= flux per pole

K : constant represents construction of

machine

EA:

is proportional

to flux

: radian

/s

and speed , flux depend on

the current flowing the

Synchronous Generator

The voltage EA is the

induced voltage

produced in one phase

of a synchronous

generator. EA is not

usually the voltage that

appears at the

terminals of the

generator. The only

time EA is the same as

the output voltage V of

the phase when there is

no armature current

flowing in the machine

(during no load).

that cause the

EA

difference between

V

and

including:

The distortion of the airgap magnetic field by the

current flowing in the

stator, called armature

reaction.

The resistance of the

armature coils,

The self inductance of the

armature coils

The effect of salient pole

rotor shape

Generator

V EA Estator

Estator jXIA

V EA jXIA

X: represents the effect of

armature reaction reactance only.

In addition to the armature

reaction .The stator coils have

self inductance and resistance,

therefore we define:

Xs X f XA

V EA jXsIA RAIA

Generator

You observe the DC power

source supplying the rotor

field circuit. The figure also

shows that each phase has

an induced voltage with a

series XS and a series RA. The

voltages and currents of the

three phases are identical

but 120 apart in angle.

The three phases can be

either Y or . If they are Y

connected, then the terminal

voltage VT is related to the

phase voltage by

VT 3 V

If connected :

VT V

synchronous generator

Phasor Diagram

Voltages in a synchronous

generator are expressed as

phasors because they are

AC voltages. Since we have

magnitude and angle, the

relationship between voltage

and current must be

expressed by a twodimensional plot.

It is noticed that, for a

given phase voltage and

armature current, a larger

induced voltage EA is

required for lagging loads

Phasor diagram of a

synchronous

generator at unity

power factor (purely

resistive Load).

Phasor Diagram

Phasor diagram of

a synchronous

generator at

lagging factor

(Inductive Load).

Phasor diagram of

a synchronous

generator at

leading factor

(Capacitive Load).

Notice that larger internal voltage is needed for lagging loads,

therefore, larger field currents is needed with lagging loads to

get same terminal E

voltage

A K

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