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Lecture Notes 07

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Chapter 03

Warm-ups

Objectives

At the end of this chapter, the students

circuit.

Trace the current path in a full-wave bridge

rectifier circuit.

calculate ac sensitivity and the value of

multiplier resistors for half-wave and full-wave

rectification.

Outlines

Introduction: What is AC.

DArsonval with Half-wave

Rectification.

DArsonval with Full-wave

Rectification.

Outlines

Electrodynamometer

movement.

Loading Effects of AC

Voltmeters

Summary

Introduction

Several types of meter movements

maybe used to measure AC current

or voltage.

The five principle meter movements

used in ac instruments are listed in

Table below:

Introduction

No

Meter Movement

DC

Use

AC Use

Applications

Electrodynamometer

YES

YES

Standard meter,

Wattmeter, etc

Iron-Vane

YES

YES

Indicator applications,

etc

Electro-static

YES

YES

High voltage

measurement.

Thermocouple

YES

YES

Radio freq

measurement

DArsonval

YES

rectifiers resistance, etc

Introduction

AC Waveforms

dArsonval MM with

Wave

Rectification.

In previous

chapter, we have

discuss in detail about dArsonval

MM (PMMC) and its applications in

Ammeter, Voltmeter and

Ohmmeters.

Now, well learn about using the

same MM to measure ac current or

voltages.

dArsonval MM with

Wave

In order to measure

ac with dArsonval

Rectification.

use of a diode rectifier.

This process will produce uni-directional

current flow.

Several types of diode rectifiers are

available: copper oxide, vacuum diode,

semiconductor diode etc.

dArsonval MM with

Wave

Rectification.

Still remember

our DC Voltmeter,

using dArsonval meter movement?

Sensitivity= 1/Ifs

dArsonval MM with

Wave

PMMC meter

movements will not work

Rectification.

current, because the direction of needle

movement will change with each half-cycle

of the AC.

Permanent-magnet meter movements, like

permanent-magnet motors, are devices

whose motion depends on the polarity of

the applied voltage.

dArsonval MM with

Wave

Rectification.

dArsonval MM with

Wave

Rectification.

If we add a diode

to a DC Voltmeter,

then we have a meter circuit capable of

measuring ac voltage.

dArsonval MM with

Wave

Rectification.

The FW biased

diode will have no

effects in the operations of the circuit.

(ideal diode)

Now, suppose we replace the 10-Vdc

with 10Vrms, what will happen?

dArsonval MM with

Wave

The voltageRectification.

across the MM is just the

positive cycle of the sine wave

because of rectifying action of the

diode.

The peak value of the ac sine wave

is :

dArsonval MM with

Wave

The MM willRectification.

respond to the average

value of sine wave where the

average, or DC value equal to 0.318

times the peak value.

The ave value of the AC sine wave

is :

dArsonval MM with

Wave

Rectification.

The diode action

produces an

approximately half sine wave across

the load resistor.

The average value of this voltage is

referred to as the DC voltage, which

a DC voltmeter connected across a

load resistor will respond to.

dArsonval MM with

Wave

Therefore, weRectification.

can see that the pointer that

deflected full scale when a 10-V DC signal

was applied, deflects to only 4.5V when we

apply a 10-Vrms sine AC waveforms.

rectification is only approximately 45%

sensitive as a DC Voltmeter.

dArsonval MM with

Wave

Rectification.

In order to have

a full scale deflection

meter when a 10-Vrms is applied, we

have to design the meter with the Rs

having 45% of Rs of DC Voltmeter.

Since the equivalent DC voltage is

45% of RMS value, we can write like

this:

Rs= (Edc/Idc)-Rm = (0.45Erms/Idc) -Rm

Example 1

dArsonval MM with

Wave

Rectification.

voltmeter shown in Figure 1.

Given that Ein= 10-Vrms, Ifs= 1mA, Rm=300.

dArsonval MM with

Wave

Example 2

In the wave rectifier Rectification.

shown below, D1 and D2 have an average

forward resistance of 50 and are assumed to have an infinite

resistance in reverse biased. Calculate the following:

(a) Rs value

(b) Sac

(c) Sdc

Given that Ein = 10-Vrms, Rsh = 200, Ifs = 100mA, Rm = 200

Conclusion

dArsonval MM can be used to measure

both DC and AC current/ voltages.

value of sine wave where the average,

or DC value equal to 0.318 times the

peak value.

Sac = 0.45Sdc

Evaluation

Quiz.

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