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DIET DURING

PREGNANCY AND
LACTATION

WEIGHT GAIN DURING


PREGNANCY

It is natural and necessary to gain weight during


pregnancy. The mothers uterus, breasts, placenta, blood
volume, body fluids, and fat must all increase to
accommodate the infants developing needs

Average weight gain is 25-35 lbs. for normal woman

A pregnant teen who is still developing will gain more


weight than a mature woman, whereas an obese women is
likely to gain less but no less than 15 lbs.

NUTRITIONAL NEEDS DURING


PREGNANCY

Protein requirement is increase by 20-25% (iron, zinc, copper,


and B vitamins)

No need for increased Vitamin A, excessive intake can cause


birth defects

All water soluble vitamins (D, E, K, and C) should be


increased

Minerals such as calcium iron, zinc, iodine, and selenium are


are essential for functions such as development of the infants
bones and teeth as well as blood clotting and muscle action

Drinking additional milk each day is a good way of providing


these nutrients

Vitamin/ iron supplements may be prescribed by an


obstetrician, nurse, midwife, or physicians assistant (PA)

CONCERNS DURING PREGNANCY

Nausea- occurs during the first trimester, also known as


morning sickness, but not necessarily felt just in the
mornings

Hyperemesis Gravidarum- rare condition that nausea becomes


so sever it is life threatening

Constipation- can be relieved by eating high-fiber foods, daily


exercise, and/or drinking 8 glasses of water each day

Heartburn- common, seeing as the growing fetus pushes on


the mothers stomach, which may cause stomach acid to move
into lower esophagus

Weight Gain

CONCERNS CONTD.

Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH)- also known as toxemia


or preeclampsia. A condition that occurs in the third trimester
and is characterized by high blood pressure, the precise of
albumin in urine, and edema. The causes are unknown but
occur more frequently to pregnant women with inadequate
diets

Pica- craving of nonfood substances such as starch, clay (soil),


or ice. Although both men and women are infected with pica,
its more common with pregnant woman. Some believe it
relieves nausea but this should be discourages because it can
cause colon blockage and create nutritional deficiencies

Anemia-condition caused by insufficient red blood cells,


hemoglobin, or blood volume. Patient doesnt receive enough
oxygen from blood, feeling weak/tired, poor appetite, and
appears pale.

CONCERNS CONTD.

Alcohol, Caffeine, Drugs, and Tobacco


Alcohol Consumption can lead to FAS (Fetal alcohol
syndrome), which can cause infants to be premature,
have a low birth weight, physical characteristics, as well
as other central nervous system dysfunction
Caffeine is known to cross placenta and enter fetal blood
stream
Drugs vary in their effects but can cause fetal
malformations and spontaneous absorptions, possibly even
HIV
Tobacco smoking is associated with babies of reduced
birth weight because smoking reduces the
oxygen/nutrients carried by the blood.

DIET FOR PREGNANT WOMEN


WITH DIABETES

Diet should remain about the same as normal pregnant


women

Should maintain their blood glucose at a steady level


between meals

Either type of diabetes increase the risk of physical or


mental diabetes

PREGNANCY DURING
ADOLESCENCE

This as become an increasing concern

Nutritional, physical, psycholigol, social, and economic demands


are tremendous leaving young mothers responsible for helpless
newborns

Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to PIH (Pregnancy Induced


Hypertension) and premature delivery

Inadequate nutrition of a mother is related to both mental and


physical birth defects

Pregnant teen need much counseling and emotional support


before nutritional improvements can be suggested

LACTATION

It is the production and secretion of breast milk for the


purpose of nourishing an infant, that is facilitated by an
interlay do various hormones after delivery of an infant

Will take 2-3 weeks to establish a feeding routine

Supply-and-demand mechanism, mother will produce when


infant wants

Approximately 85 kcal is required to produce 100 Ml of milk


(3 1/3 oz.)

Extra nutrients are required such as fruits, vegetables, and


vitamins and an extra 640 kcal a day

BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDING

Breast milk contains the right amount of lactose, water, fatty


acids, and amino acids for brain development, growth, and
digestion

Breast fed babies have incidences of ear infections, diarrhea,


allergies, ad hospital admissions

Receive antibodies to diseases such as pneumonia, bronchitis,


influenza, German measles, botulism, and staphylococcal
infections

Sucking at the breast promotes good jaw development/ exercise

Nursing may have psychological benefits for the infant by


creating an early emotional attachment between mother and
child