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The Martyrs of the Civil Rights

The Martyrs of the Civil Rights Movement

State Standards:

12.2 Students evaluate and take and defend positions on the scope and limits of rights and
democratic citizens, the relationships among them, and how they are
12.2.1. Discuss the meaning and importance of each of the rights guaranteed under the Bill of Rights and how each is secured
(e.g., freedom religion, speech, press, assembly, petition, privacy).
Describe the reciprocity between rights and obligations; that is, why enjoyment of ones rights entails respect for the

12.5 Students summarize landmark U.S. Supreme Court interpretations of the


obligations as

rights of others.

Constitution and its

12.5.4. Explain the controversies that have resulted over changing interpretations of civil rights, including those in
Plessy v. Ferguson,
Brown v. Board of Education, Miranda v. Arizona, Regents of the University of
California v. Bakke, Adarand Constructors, Inc. v.
Pena, and United States v. Virginia (VMI).

12.6 Students evaluate issues regarding campaigns for national, state, and local elective offices.

12.6.4. Describe the means that citizens use to participate in the political process (e.g., voting, campaigning, lobbying, filing a legal

demonstrating, petitioning, picketing, running for political office).


The Martyrs of the Civil Rights Movement

Common Core Standards:
Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source;
provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key
details and ideas.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text,
including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term
over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison definesfactioninFederalistNo. 10).
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse
formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to
address a question or solve a problem.

The Martyrs of the Civil Rights Movement

Main Idea:

Beyond the famous leaders of the

Civil Rights Movement, ordinary
men and women of all races
struggled and sacrificed their lives
to promote their beliefs of equality
and justice for all while securing a
brighter future for everyone.

Key Terms:
Civil Rights
Civil Liberties
Hate Crime
Due Process Clause

Civil Rights Movement Background

Civil Rights:
Involves the rights guaranteed to United States citizens and residents by
legislation and by the United States Constitution.

Civil Liberties:
are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge,
either by law or by judicial interpretation

Civil Rights Movement Background

13th Amendment (1865):
Abolished Slavery & involuntary servitude, except punishment for a crime.

14th Amendment (1868):

Defines citizenship, contains the Immunities Clause, the Due Process Clause, and the
Equal Protection Clause.

15th Amendment (1870):

Prohibits the denial of the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition
of servitude.

Reconstruction (1863-1877):
Jim Crow Laws established
Legal segregation laws in the Southern States of the U.S.

Civil Rights Movement Background

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896):
Established separate but equal

Brown v. Board of Education (1954):

Outlawed segregation in public schools; Littlerock 9 in 1957.

Emmitt Till Murder (August 28th, 1955)

Montgomery, Alabama bus Boycotts (1955):
Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus and sparked the bus

Civil Rights Timeline

Civil Rights Martyrs 1950-1957

What is a Martyr?
a person who is killed or who suffers greatly for a cause.

What was their Cause?

Equality and justice for all African-American citizens.

Civil Rights Martyrs 1955-1968

May 7th, 1955
Reverend George Lee

August 13th, 1955

Lamar Smith

August 28th, 1955

Emmett Louis Till
a 14-year-old boy on vacation from Chicago, reportedly flirted with a white woman in a store.
Three nights later, two men (Roy Bryant & J.W. Milam) took Till from his bed, beat him, shot him
and dumped his body in the Tallahatchie River. An all-white jury found the men innocent of murder.

October 22nd, 1955

John Earl Reese (no photograph)

Civil Rights Martyrs 1955-1968

January 23rd, 1957
Willie Edwards Jr.

April 25th, 1959
Mack Charles Parker

September 25th, 1961
Herbert Lee

Civil Rights Martyrs 1955-1968

April 9th, 1962
Cpl. Roman Ducksworth Jr.
a military police officer stationed in Maryland, was on leave to visit
his sick wife when he was ordered off a bus by a police officer and
shot dead. The police officer may have mistaken Ducksworth for a
freedom rider who was testing bus desegregation laws.

September 30th, 1962

Paul Guihard

Civil Rights Martyrs 1955-1968

April 23rd, 1963
William Lewis Moore
June 12th, 1963
Medgar Evers
September 15th, 1963
Addie Mae Collins, Denise McNair, Carole Robertson and Cynthia Wesley
were getting ready for church services when a bomb exploded at the
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, killing all four of the school-age girls. The
church had been a center for civil rights meetings and marches.
September 15th, 1963
Virgil Lamar Ware (13)

Civil Rights Martyrs 1955-1968

January 31st, 1964
Louis Allen
April 7th, 1964
Reverend Bruce Klunder
was among civil rights activists who protested the building of a segregated school by
placing their bodies in the way of construction equipment. Klunder was crushed to death
when a bulldozer backed over him.
June 21st, 1964
James Earl Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Henry Schwerner
July 11th, 1964
Lt. Col. Lemuel Penn
a Washington, D.C., educator, was driving home from U.S. Army Reserves training when
he was shot and killed by Klansmen in a passing car .

Civil Rights Martyrs 1955-1968

February 21st, 1965
Malcolm Little, Malcolm X
A civil Rights activists that advocated against white America and promoted black supremacy, rejecting integration
and promoted the black power movement was shot multiple times from members of the Nation of Islam after several
years of disagreement.

February 26th, 1965

Jimmie Lee Jackson

March 25th, 1965

Viola Gregg Liuzzo
a housewife and mother from Detroit, drove alone to Alabama to help with the Selma march
after seeing televised reports of the attack at the Edmund Pettus Bridge. She was ferrying
marchers between Selma and Montgomery when she was shot and killed by a Klansmen in a
passing car.

Civil Rights Martyrs 1955-1968

January 3rd, 1966
Samuel Leamon Younge Jr.

January 10th, 1966

Vernon Ferdinand Dahmer

June 10th, 1966

Ben Chester White

July 30th, 1966

Clarence Triggs (no photograph)

Civil Rights Martyrs 1955-1968

February 27th, 1967
Wharlest Jackson

May 12th, 1967

Benjamin Brown

Civil Rights Martyrs 1955-1968

February 8th, 1968
Samuel Ephesians Hammond Jr., Delano Herman Middleton and Henry
Ezekial Smith

April 4th, 1968

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
a Baptist minister, was a major architect of the Civil Rights
Movement. He led and inspired major non-violent desegregation
campaigns, including those in Montgomery and Birmingham. He
won the Nobel peace prize. He was assassinated as he prepared to
lead a demonstration in Memphis.

Its easy to remember the contributions of the major civil rights leaders such as
Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, Jesse Jackson, Malcolm X, and Thurgood
Marshall; but we must not forget the countless individuals that sacrificed their
lives to overcome the segregation and discrimination to create a better future for
everyone. Furthermore, We must not forget that Martin Luther King was not an
army of one, but had many individuals that helped make his dream come true.

Major Civil Rights Laws:
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), prohibits racially segregated public schools.
Civil Rights Act of 1957, makes it a crime to prevent persons from voting in federal elections.
Civil Rights Act of 1964, bans discrimination in employment or in public accommodations on the basis or race, color, religion, sex, or
national origin, created the EEOC.
Voting Rights Act of 1965, authorizes the appointment of federal examiners to register voters in areas with a history of discrimination.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, prohibits job discrimination against workers or job applicants aged 40 through 65 and
prohibits mandatory retirement.
Fair Housing Act of 1968, prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin in the sale or rental of most
Title IX Education Amendment of 1972, prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any education program receiving federal financial
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, requires that recipients of federal grants greater than $2,500 hire and promote qualified handicapped
Fair Housing Act Amendments of 1988, gave the Department of Housing and Urban Development authority to prohibit housing bias
against the handicapped and families with children.
American with Disabilities Act of 1990, prohibits discrimination based on disability and requires that facilities be made accessible to
those with disabilities.
Civil Rights Act of 1991, requires that employers justify practices that negatively affect the working conditions of women and minorities
or show that no alternative practices would have a lesser impact. Also established a commission to examine what keeps women and
minorities from becoming executives and to recommend how to increase the number of women and minorities in management.

Civil Rights Movement