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ACS Review

Quick refresher of materials


Some sample questions and short cuts

Sections in ACS prep book


to review

Atomic Structure
Molecular Structure and bonding
Stoichiometry
States of Matter/ Solutions
Energetics
Descriptive Chemistry/ Periodicity
Laboratory Chemistry

Basics
Dimensional analysis is very very important
Know how to make conversions

cent, kilo, ect.


Grams moles (MM)
Vol grams (density)
Vol moles (concentration)

The periodic table

Notation and Calculation


56
26

Fe

Remember this?
26 protons
30 neutrons
26 electrons

Calculations: you may need to do weighted averages.


20% of a sample is 32grams/mol and 80% 28grams/mol
what is the average?
20x32 + 80x28 /100 = 28.8g/mol

The table

Which has the highest electronegativity?


Which is isoelectric to X?
Which is likely to form the same structure as __ ?
What has 25 protons?
If it has 24 neutrons and a mass of 52 what is the
element?

formulas
Know how to use charges to determine
formula
Example: the correct formula for the compound formed
between Al and S?
Al+3 and S-2 Al2S3

Even more useful, use formula to


determine charge.
Example: you cant remember if Ag has a +1 or +2 charge.
if AgCl is a formula given in the question or in some
other question, knowing Cl is -1 tells you Ag is +1

Formulas from %
Given mass % or total mass of each element
determine empirical formula.
A sample contains 11.1% H and 88.9% O
11.2grams H (1 mol/1.001g)=moles H =11.18
88.9grams O(1 mol/16.0g)=moles O =5.55

2
1

H2O

Reactions

Single
Double
Composition
Decomposition
Combustion
Acid / Base

Balance equations
know difference in
General
Ionic
Net ionic

stoichiometry

Acid base theories


Bronsted/ lowry
Lewis
Arrhenius

Protons
electron pairs
Whats produced in water

You should have your six strong acids and bases memorized.
HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, CaOH2, SrOH2, BaOH2

Why?
a) It helps identify weak acids and weak bases
b) It will help with determining solubility

Balance equations

Yields

Use stoichiometry
Limiting reagents
Grams------mole------mole------gram
Amt------mole------mole-----amt
Amt -------- Mole
Grams (molar mass)
Liters of solution (concentration)
Gas (Ideal gas law)

Solution
Molarity(M) Vs Molality(m)

mole
L of solution
Total solution solvent and solute

Dilution:
C1V1=C2V2

mole
Kg of solvent
Solvent only

Titration:
naMaVa=nbMbVb

Gas laws
PV=nRT
Mostly the relationships (when P goes from 1020, V does what?)
Remember T is in K

When gases are non ideal (correct for molecular


volume and intermolecular forces)
Diffusion small things faster

Structure
Quantum numbers

n
l
ml

is the major shell(1,2,3


is the subshell (0=s, 1=p)
is the axis (x, y, z)

spin (+ )

Filling the orbital (use the table)

Bonding and geometry


Ionic vs. Covalent
Electronic vs. Molecular geometry (VSEPR)

Drawing Lewis structures


Dipoles
Hybrids
Pi bonds
MO
Delocalized bonds (resonance)

Lewis structures
Multiple Choice Test Just be able to pick the
correct drawing!!
Some things to look for
Octets on non-central atoms (all atoms if central is 1 st row)
Happy elements
Charges
Negative usually carried by single bonded O (one for each charge)
Positive usually carried by a four bond N or P

O -1

O
N
Cl

O Cl O
O

-3

O
O

P
O

+1

H N H
H

States of matter
Know the basic properties
Remember this:

Freezing / melting
Liquid
Solid

Condensing / boiling

Gas
Sublimation / Deposition

Triple point

energy
Heat of formation ( to form from the elements)
Hf of MgCl2 is Mg(s) + Cl2(g) MgCl2 H=___kJ

Heat of combustion(react with O2)


H of CH4 is CH4 + 2O2(g) CO2 + 2H2O H=___kJ

Solid at STP

Diatomic gas at STP

State function have which means final - initial

Energy
Bond Enthalpy = Sum of bond energy of
reactants - sum of bond energy of products
(Breaking bonds- forming bonds)
Enthalpy of reaction using DHf= sum of
products sum of reactants
Hesss Law===Get to the goal by
manipulating reaction information given and
adding up the reactions used

When Solving Problems


Look for the easiest way to solve! There
are 70 questions and only 110 minutes so
THERE MUST BE SHORT CUTS!

1.

Which of these compounds contains the greatest


percentage of nitrogen?
C6H3N307 229 g/mol
A) C6H3N307
CH4N20
60.1 g/mol
B) CH4N20
LiNH2
23.0 g/mol
Pb(N3)2
229.1 g/mol
C) LiNH2
mass N
The long
way:
calculate
the
%N
for
each
one
x100
D) Pb(N3)2
total mass
The quicker way: all N have the same mass so,
Which has the highest N to mass ratio or Even better
which has the lowest total mass per N
A cursory glance tells us it is not B or A
D has 6 N it may need a second look 229/6=38
The answer is C

The Number of atoms in 9.0g of Aluminum is equal to the


Number of atoms in
A) 8.1g Mg
B) 12.1g Mg The Long way:
C) 9.0g Mg Calculate # of atoms in 9.0 g Al
D) 18.0g Mg Then calculate mass of that # of Mg atoms
Look for ratios: Al has a molar mass of 27
This is 1/3 of a mole Al
Which one is 1/3 mole of Mg
24.3 x 1/3 = 8.1g
So A

When NF3 and BF3 are reacted together they form BF3NF3
what is the geometry of the B and N atoms.
A) Both tetrahedral
B) B is triganal planer and N is tetrahedral
C) Both triganal planer
D) N is triganal planer and B is tetrahedral

How many things are around each?


B and N each will have 4 bonds
Both tetrahedral

A student wants to prepare a 250mL sample of 0.10 M NaCl.


Which procedure is the most appropriate?
Molar mass of NaCl 58.4 g mol-1
A) Add 5.84g NaCl to 250mL of water
B) Add 1.46g of NaCl to 250mL of water
C) Dissolve 5.84g of NaCl in 50mL and Dilute to 250mL
D) Dissolve 1.46g of NaCl in 50mL and Dilute to 250mL
Mol/L of solution

L of 0.1M

So A and B are out

5.84 is 0.1 mole NaCl


1.46 is of that

So D

The oxidation number of chlorine in KClO3 is


a) +6
b) +5
c) -1
d) -2
e) +2

O only oxidation is 2 (unless peroxide)

3 x -2 = -6

K only oxidation +1

1 x +1 =+1

-5
+5 to Balance it out

Which one of the following sets of quantum numbers is not


allowed?
a) n = 3, l = 2, ml = +1
b) n = 3, l = 3, ml = 0
c) n = 3, l = 0, ml = 0
d) n = 4, l = 3, ml = -2
l must be less than n
ml absolute value must be less than or equal to l

Which ion has 26 electrons?


a)
b)
c)
d)

Cr+2
Fe+2
Ni+2
Cu+2

Its really asking Which is iso-electronic to Fe?


On the table What minus 2 electrons looks like iron?

C Ni+2

Element X has two isotopes 13X with 80% abundance


and 12X with 20% abundance, what is the average
mass of the element?
a) 12. amu
b) 12.8 amu
c) 12.5 amu
d) 13.0 amu

Long way: (13 X 80) + (12 X 20)/100


But why bother:
the weighted average will be
closer to the larger abundance

GOOD LUCK!!!
10 AM class your final is Friday April 27 at 8
am in LCTR 346
11 AM class your final is Monday April 30 at 8
am in LCTR 346
You must get permission to switch from one
time to another.

SI sessions and Office Hours


SI sessions in RHSC 317 Tuesday at 5 pm
and Wednesday 8 pm
Offices Hours
Wednesday (April 25th)11-4
Thursday (April 26th) 11-4
Sunday (April 29th)12-3