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12/19/16

Summary of RTWP
Optimization Solutions
for High-Traffic Cells
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Background

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An Example of RTWP Too High (RealTime Trace in Country A)

High traffic causes the following RTWP abnormalities: The RTWP remains high during
busy hours, and the RTWP sharply increases in a short time during busy hours.
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18:45:00

18:50:00

18:55:00

19:00:00

RTWP(dBm)

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Summary of RTWP Optimization


Solutions for High-Traffic Cells
RTWP Optimization
Optimization Solution
Optimization of CQI feedback period

Supported
Version

Impact
Range

All

Solutions Available in
Different Versions
R10

R11

R12

R13

RNC/Cell

Implementation

Remarks

This is a standard solution and should be implemented


preferentially.

Access parameter optimization (indoor


distribution)

All

Cell

10 ms fixed PO optimization

All

RNC

The link release problem of iPhone 4

R12

RNC

State transition/EFD

R12

RNC

2 ms fixed PO optimization

R10

RNC

Internal parameters are involved.

Value optimization of SIB 7 broadcast


RTWP

R12

Cell

This is merged into NodeB R12SPC430.

HSUPA PO adaptive adjustment

R13

RNC

HSUPA TTI selection and switchover


solution enabled + 2 ms periodic retry
disabled

R10

RNC

This is used for 10 ms, and not used with the fixed PO
optimization at the same time.
HSUPA TTI selection and switchover solution includes the
TTI switchover implemented on R10 and based on load,
the TTI switchover implemented on R12 and based on
admission CE, and the access state TII selection
implemented on patch release R3 (RNC R13SPH529).

Reception using multiple antennas

All

Cell

0.5/0.5 reconstruction

All

Cell

This is directly
implemented by
site engineers.

Internal parameters are involved in versions earlier than


R13.
The solution is merged into RNC R12SPC516.

This affects KPIs.

EFD is implemented in the network with high iPhone


penetration rate.

This needs to be
analyzed by R&D
engineers.

Multiple-RRU demodulation

R13

NodeB

HSUPA target retransmission times


modified to 10%.

All

RNC

PS R99 target BLER modified to 10%

All

RNC

The HSUPA 2 ms function disabled.

R10

RNC/Node
B

Maximum number of HSUPA


subscribers in the cell limited.

All

Cell

This is a non-standard solution. It is recommended that site


engineers select a site to try first.

Note: For the MML commands executed in the preceding solutions, refer to the Excel attachment in page 26 of this document.

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RTWP Optimization Solution


Optimization of CQI Feedback Period

Optimization of CQI feedback period

Basic principle and application scenario

Basic principle: The shorter the CQI feedback period is, the better the downlink data transmission is.
The longer the CQI feedback period is, the lower the load is.

Application scenario: any scenarios where the HSUPA cell capacity needs to be expanded and the
cell RTWP needs to be reduced.

Gain and risk

Gain: On the office in country A, the CQI feedback period is changed from 2 ms to 8 ms. After
optimization, the average value of the RTWP traced in real time is reduced by about 8 dB. The
average RTWP value of hour-level traffic statistics is reduced by about 10 dB.

Risk: After this solution is implemented on offices A and B, there is no impact on the entire network.

Version in which the solution is implemented

In RAN13.0, parameters are baselined to 4 ms. Parameters are modified manually in earlier versions
(If internal parameters are involved, you need to obtain the commands for modifying internal
parameters from the PDT manager of the product line.).

Priority

High

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RTWP Optimization Solution


Optimization
of CQI Feedback Period
Optimization of CQI feedback period

Application effect (on the office in country A)

Modify the CQI feedback period from 2 ms to 8 ms. The RTWP average value is
reduced by about 8 dB in real-time trace (-76.97-> -85.05).

The load overshoots in a short time, and the frequency decreases obviously.

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RTWP Optimization SolutionAccess


Parameter Optimization (A)

Access parameter optimization

Basic principle and application scenario

Basic principle: By reducing the spike of the preamble open-loop power control on the
uplink RTWP in RACH initial access, the RTWP is significantly reduced in the cell with
frequent RACH access (thousands of times per hour).

Application scenario: This solution is mainly used for indoor coverage scenarios, and for
cells with frequent subscriber access and high RTWP.

Gain and risk

Gain: After the Constantvalue parameter is modified on the office in country C, the RTWP
average value is reduced by 3 dB to 4 dB. After PreambleRetransMax, PowerRampStep
and Mmax parameters are modified, the average RTWP value is reduced by 1 dB.

Version in which the solution is implemented

Risk: For indoor coverage scenarios, the access delay increases.


All

Priority

High

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RTWP Optimization SolutionAccess


Parameter Optimization (B)

Access parameter optimization

Solution
For the indoor scenario:

Modify the constant value of the initial transmit power: Constantvalue=-20->


Constantvalue=-30,

Modify the Preamble retransmit times: PreambleRetransMax=20 ->


PreambleRetransMax=40,

Modify the step: PowerRampStep=2 -> PowerRampStep=1,

Modify the maximum number of cycles: Mmax=8->Mmax=3,

Modify the upper limit of random rollback: NB01max=0 -> NB01max=10.

For the outdoor scenario:

Modify the maximum cyclic times: Mmax=8->Mmax=3,

Modify the upper limit of random rollback: NB01max=0 -> NB01max=10.

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RTWP Optimization SolutionAccess


Parameter Optimization (C)

Access parameter optimization

Application effect (on the office in country A)

After the access parameter optimization, the RTWP average value is reduced by 3 dB to 4 dB.

The RTWP short-time overshoot still exists, but with significantly better frequency and intensity.

The RTWP distribution in the low interval increases significantly.

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RTWP Optimization Solution10 ms


Fixed PO Optimization

10 ms fixed PO optimization

Basic principle and application scenario

Gain and risk

Gain: For the lab test with dual antennas, 75% uplink load target threshold, 18 online subscribers
and two uploading subscribers, the gain of the uplink throughput in the cell is 15%.
Risk: The peak rate of the HSUPA 10 ms subscriber in commercial network competition is slightly
affected.

Version in which the solution is implemented

Basic principle: Configure higher reference PO for the 10 ms PO, to reduce DPCCH SIR working
point and uplink load cost, and to improve the throughput of the HSUPA cell with many
subscribers.
Application scenario: This is used for the network with a high ratio of HSUPA 10 ms subscriber,
and with limited uplink capacity.

All (Versions earlier than R13 involve internal parameter modification. You need to obtain the
commands for modifying internal parameters from the PDT manager of the product line. It is
recommended that HSUPA PO adaptive adjustment is used on R13 version and later versions.)

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RTWP Optimization Solution2 ms


Fixed PO Optimization

2 ms fixed PO optimization

Basic principle and application scenario

Gain and risk

Gain: For the lab test with one antenna, 90% uplink load target threshold, and with 7
to 8 subscribers running FTP for upload, the gain of the uplink throughput in the cell is
15%.
Risk: The peak rate of the HSUPA 2 ms subscriber in commercial network competition
is greatly affected.

Version in which the solution is implemented

Basic principle: Configure higher reference PO for the 2 ms PO, to reduce DPCCH
SIR working point and uplink load cost, and to improve the throughput of the HSUPA
cell with many subscribers.
Application scenario: This is used for the network with a high ratio of HSUPA 2 ms
subscriber, and with limited uplink capacity.

All (If internal parameters are involved, you need to obtain the commands for
modifying internal parameters from the PDT manager of the product line.)

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RTWP Optimization SolutionState


Transition/EFD

State transition

Basic principle

Gain and risk

Gain: The gain is related to traffic models and the permanent online timer.
Risk: This increases PS call drop rate, and decreases the setup success rate of CS
composite services. Because the EFD is not compatible with other terminals, you
are advised to use this solution for iPhones only.

Version in which the solution is implemented

Basic principle: Transit the light-traffic subscribers to the FACH state, reduce
dedicated channel resources occupation of light-traffic subscribers, and reduce
uplink and downlink load. EFD is used for networks with high iPhone penetration
rates.
Application scenario: This is used for networks with high penetration rates for
intelligent terminals, large amount of online subscribers and low throughputs.

R12

Priority

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RTWP Optimization Solution


State Transition/EFD

State transition
Application effect (on the office in country A)

If the state transition is disabled, the capacity loss is severe, and the whole RTWP
increase is obvious (by about 15 dB).

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CELLFACH ON

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CELLFACH OFF

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RTWP Optimization Solution


iPhone Link-Deleting Problem

iPhone link-deleting problem

Basic principle and application scenario

Gain and risk

Gain: The RTWP spike is reduced, especially for networks with high iPhone penetration
rates. After the solution is implemented on the site in Thailand, the RTWP average value
improves by about 3 dB.
Risk: None

Version in which the solution is implemented

Basic principle: When iPhone releases a link, the iPhone retransmits the RRC CONN
REL CMP signaling message. However, the network side releases the link before UE. As
a result, the uplink power control is abnormal and the RTWP spike occurs. The solution is
delaying the link release on the network side when iPhone releases a link.
Application scenario: This is used for networks with high iPhone penetration rates and
high RTWP.

RNC RAN12 SPC516

Priority

High

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RTWP Optimization SolutioniPhone


Link-Deleting Problem

iPhone link release problem

Application effect (on the office in country A)

The RTWP average value increases by about 3 dB (89.9 dBm -> 93.1 dBm).

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RTWP Optimization SolutionRTWP


Value Optimization of SIB7 Broadcast

Value optimization of SIB 7 broadcast RTWP

Basic principle and application scenario

Gain and risk

Gain: After the RTWP value of SIB7 broadcast is optimized on the office in country A, the
average RTWP value is reduced by about 3 dB.
Risk: In the scenario with low load and not obvious RTWP spike caused by RACH, each
RACH access needs a large amount of preamble ramp progress, which causes hundredms-level delay to increase.

Version in which the solution is implemented

Basic principle: Reduce the spike of the preamble open-loop power control on the uplink
RTWP in RACH initial access, especially in high load scenarios. The RTWP in SIB7 is
broadcast in real time. If you reduce the RTWP in SIB7, the effect is essentially the same
as that of reducing the Constvalue. Both are for reducing the UE power of transmitting
the first preamble.
Application scenario: This is used in the scenario where the RACH causes RTWP ramp.

NodeB R12SPC430

Priority

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RTWP Optimization SolutionRTWP


Value Optimization of SIB7 Broadcast

Value optimization of SIB 7 broadcast RTWP

Application effect (on the office in country A)

After the RTWP value of SIB7 broadcast is optimized, the RTWP average value is
reduced by about 3 dB: 93.5 vs 90.8.
In the real-time trace data, you can see that the frequency of load short-time overshoot
obviously becomes lower.

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RTWP Optimization Solution


Adaptive Adjustment of HSUPA PO

Adaptive adjustment of HSUPA PO (Power Offset)

Basic principle and application scenario

Gain and risk

Gain: When the subscriber amount is large and the rate is low, the gain is obvious. For example,
more than fifteen 10 ms subscribers that only have small amounts of data to be retransmitted
are online and uploading at the same time. If the power offset of data channels for these
subscribers all can be adjusted, the HSUPA capacity of the cell can improve by more than 40%
without object load increase. This is shown by the increase of the average throughput or the
increase of uplink data transmission subscriber number at the same time. The effect is better
with HSUPA TTI switchover based on the load enabled.
Risk: Four minutes are taken from triggering to completion of this feature. The gain is not
obvious for frequent link-release/link setup subscribers or subscribers with too short lasting time
links.

Version in which the solution is implemented

Basic principle: If the subscriber rate is lower than a certain threshold, and the air interface load
is limited, increase the HSUPA reference PO to reduce the SIR working point of lower rate
subscribers, and to improve uplink capacity.
Application scenario: This is used for the network with a high ratio of HSUPA 10 ms subscriber,
and with limited uplink capacity.

RAN13.0 (fixed PO configuration can be carried out on early versions.)

Priority

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RTWP Optimization SolutionHSUPA TTI


Selection and Switchover Solution
Enabled
+ 2 and
msswitchover
Periodic
Retry
Disabled
HSUPA TTI selection
solution enabled
+ 2 ms
periodic retry disabled.

Basic principle and application scenario

Gain and risk

Gain: The RTWP overshoot caused by data burst because of high minimum rate of 2 ms
subscribers is reduced.
Risk: When the 10 ms TTI subscriber requires high-speed data transmission, the rate
rises a little slowly because of the reconfiguration process to the 2 ms TTI.

Version in which the solution is implemented

Basic principle: If the subscriber rate is lower than a certain threshold, and the air
interface resource or the CE resource is limited, the switchover of the HSUPA subscriber
from 2 ms TTI to 10 ms TTI is triggered. The RTWP overshoot caused by data burst
because of high minimum rate of 2 ms subscribers is reduced. The 2 ms periodic retry is
disabled to prevent TTI ping-pong switchover.
Application scenario: This is used for networks with HSUPA 2 ms function enabled, lots of
2 ms subscribers and limited uplink load.

RAN10.0

Priority

Medium

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Comparison of Different TTI Switchover


Solutions
TTI switchover based on load

TTI switchover based on


admission

TTI selection of
access state

Basic principle

If the air interface load exceeds the target node,


and 2 ms TTI is configured for the service. the
rate cannot reduce because the scheduling
algorithm guarantees one RLC PDU. The
related minimum rate is 168 Kbit/s (336) or 328
Kbit/s (656). At this time if the TTI is switched
from 2 ms to 10 ms, the actual subscriber rate
is reduced, and also the cell load.

In admission, the consumed admission


CE of the 2 ms subscriber is more than
that of the 10 ms subscriber. Therefore,
when the admission CE is limited,
switching the subscriber from 2 ms to
10 ms improves the admission
subscriber number of the system.

Application
scenario

This is used for scenarios with limited uplink


loads and low uplink rates.

This is used for scenarios with limited


admission CE and low uplink rates.

This is used for commercial


networks with lots of HSUPA
subscriber access.

Gain

This reduces load when the uplink load


resource is severely limited, and reduces the
RTWP.

This alleviates the admission CE


congestion problem after 2 ms TTI is
enabled, and improves the subscriber
number specification.

The initial TTI is selected based


on the resource congestion state
when the subscriber accesses.
This reduces reconfiguration
signaling and improves power
efficiency.

Version in
which the
solution is
implemented

RAN10.0

RAN12.0

RNC RAN13SPH529

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The HSUPA subscriber selects


the initial TTI based on the
actual resource (RTWP/Iub/CE)
congestion state.

RTWP Optimization Solution


Reception Using Multiple Antennas

Reception using multiple antennas

Basic principle and application scenario

Basic principle: For the same transmission rate, the reception using multiple antennas
reduces the signal power that each antenna receives, that is, the uplink load. For the
same load, the reception using multiple antennas allows the UE to send larger
transmission blocks, which means the uplink capacity is improved.

Gain and risk

Gain: Compared with the single antenna reception, the dual-antenna reception
improves the uplink capacity by more than 50%. Compared with the dual-antenna
reception, the four-antenna reception improves the uplink capacity by more than 50%.

Version in which the solution is implemented

Risk: No for now.


All

Priority

Low.

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RTWP Optimization Solution


0.5/0.5 Reconstruction

0.5/0.5 reconstruction

Basic principle

The dual-antenna demodulation reception is implemented on the baseband side. The


baseband side and the RF side do not merge raw data, and the RTWP is the same as
that in the regular dual-antenna cell.

Figure 1 0.5/0.5 mode of dual-antenna reception

Gain and risk

Gain: In the 2 RRU/4 RRU multi-area cell networking, compared with the distributed cell,
the 0.5/0.5 reconstruction does not have noise floor ramp.
Risk: None

Realized version

Figure 2 RRU cascade mode

All

Priority

Medium

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RTWP Optimization Solution


Multiple-RRU Cell

Multiple-RRU cell

Basic principle and application scenario

Gain and risk

Gain: This improves cell capacity and throughput, and reduces the number of inter-cell
subscriber handovers.
Risk: Higher baseband resource consumption

Version in which the solution is implemented

Basic principle: The NodeB independently demodulates and merges several received
RRU signals in the baseband processing module, and duplicates a cell signal branch
to several RRUs for transmission.
Application scenario: This feature is for special high-speed motion scenarios such as
highway or railway coverage, and F1 racing tracks. This feature is not compatible with
the following features: WRFD-010203 transmit diversity, four-antenna WRFD-010209
transmit diversity, WRFD-010684 2x2 MIMO and 200 km coverage WRFD-021308.

R13

Priority

Low

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Comparison of Different Multiple-RRU


Cell Solutions
Combining type

Baseband demodulation
mode and resource
consumption

0.5/0.5 (RAN10)

Distributed RRU cascade cell

Independently demodulating
multiple-RRU cell (RAN13)

RRU signals are transmitted to the baseband


independently, and demodulated independently.
Uplink performance is good.

The RRU combines and transmits signals


to the baseband. The baseband does not
sense several RRUs. Uplink performance
is bad.

RRU signals are transmitted to the


baseband independently, and
demodulated independently. Uplink
performance is good.

If each RRU is a 2R RRU, four antennas need to be


Two antennas are configured for the
configured for the baseband demodulation mode, the
Dual antennas are configured for the
baseband demodulation mode, and
CE consumption doubles, and the cell specification is baseband demodulation mode, while each
each RRU is a 2R RRU.N RRUs
half of the dual-antenna cell specification. If each RRU
RRU is a 1R RRU. The CE and cell
consume N times cell resources: The E
is a 1R RRU, dual antennas need to be configured for resource is the same as those of the dualboard supports one 3 RRUs cell at
the baseband demodulation mode, and the CE
antenna cell.
most, and the D board supports one 6
consumption and cell specification remain the same.
RRU cell at most.

Whether the noise floor


increases

No.

Yes (noise floor increase=10log(N)dB)

No.

Number of RRU in the


multiple-RRU cell

Four at most are recommended for


performance.

WBBPb:3
WBBPd:6

CPRI interface type

This is not limited and cascading is recommended.

1R: The RRUs belonging to the same cell


are connected to two optical ports at most.
2R: The RRUs belonging to the same cell
are connected to one optical port at most.

This is not limited.

The limitation of the distance


between RRUs of adjacent
coverage.

4 KM

4 KM

10 KM

Downlink transmission power

This is the same for each RRU.

Different RRUs have different


configurations

This is the same for each RRU.

UPA scheduling

The UPA throughput rate is high and the stability of


some RRUs is reduced. The scheduling is based on
the average RTWP value of all RRUs.

Application scenario

Road and railway coverage (indoor coverage).

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The UPA throughput rate is high and the


The UPA stability is good, and the
stability of some RRUs is reduced. The throughputs of some RRUs reduce. The
scheduling is based on the RTWP values scheduling is based on the maximum
of all RRUs.
RTWP value of all RRUs.
Road and railway coverage (indoor
coverage).

Indoor coverage

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RTWP Optimization Solution


Summary of Non-Standard Solutions
Optimization
Solution

Description

Risk and Suggestion

Disable the HSUPA 2


ms function.

Disabling the HSUPA 2


ms function makes only
10 ms available for
HSUPA subscribers.

Disabling the2 ms function affects


subscriber peak rate. It is
recommended that the 2 ms
function is modified in noncomparison test networks.

Limit the maximum


HSUPA subscriber
number in the cell.

Reduce the maximum


HSUPA access
subscriber number in the
cell, and reduce the
RTWP cost of HSUPA
subscribers.

Modify the HSUPA


target retransmission
times.

Modify the 10 ms target


retransmission times of
HSUPA from 1% to 10%.

It is recommended that this solution


is carried out in non-comparison test
networks or networks that have no
requirements for 10 ms peak rate.

Modify the BLER of PS


subscribers in the R99
network from 1% to 10%.

If you modify the high-speed (such


as 384 Kbit/s) BLER to 10%, the
idle subscriber peak rate is affected.
It is recommended that the BLER is
modified based on the traffic mode
and rate in the live network.

Modify the target


BLER of PS
subscribers in the R99
network.

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Remarks

It is recommended that this solution


is carried out in non-comparison test
networks.

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It is recommended that
the site engineer selects
a site to try these nonstandard solutions, and
then decides whether to
implement in the whole
network.

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RTWP Optimization SolutionSummary

Summary of RTWP
Optimization Solutions f

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