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Materials

Sheet Metal Properties Cold Rolled

TYPICAL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Carbon, Max % 0.15


Manganese, Max % 0.60
Phosphorus, Max % 0.030
Sulphur, Max % 0.035

TYPICAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


Tensile Strength ksi 20 40

Sheet Metal Properties Hot Rolled

TYPICAL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Carbon, % 0.15 0.20


Manganese, % 0.60 0.90
Phosphorus, Max % 0.040
Sulphur, Max % 0.050

TYPICAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


Tensile Strength ksi 65

Sheet Metal Properties 304 Stainless Steel

TYPICAL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Carbon, Max % 0.03


Manganese, Max % 2.0
Phosphorus, Max % 0.045
Sulphur, Max % 0.03
Chromium, Max% 17.5
Nickel, Min% 8.0
Molybdenum, Max% N/A

TYPICAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


Tensile Strength ksi 81

Sheet Metal Properties 316 Stainless Steel

TYPICAL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Carbon, Max % 0.03


Manganese, Max % 2.00
Phosphorus, Max % 0.045
Sulphur, Max % 0.03
Chromium, Max% 18.0
Nickel, Min% 14.0
Molybdenum, Max% 3.0

TYPICAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


Tensile Strength ksi 83

Purpose

Purpose of this presentation:


Explain materials used for punches and why they are selected.

Tool Steel Advantages

What qualities are important for tooling?


Quality Product
Dependable, reliable, consistent, accurate dimensions

Wear Resistance (Adhesive and Abrasive)


Resistance to wear from gummy materials stainless
Resistance to wear from abrasive materials hot rolled
Provided by hardness level and chemistry (carbide composition)

Toughness and Good Fatigue Life


Resistance to breakage (fracture) and chipping; impact strength
Opposite of brittleness
Not the same as Hardness

Hardness
Resistance to deformation (compression, indentation)
From 58 to 64 HRc, typical 60-62 HRc

Red Hardness (= Heat Resistance = Anneal Resistance)


Ability to sharpen the product without damaging the material as well as
being able to coat it (heated operations)

Tool Steel

Basic Structure
Matrix (Base):

The mortar that holds the road together

Matrix compositions can be altered to


enhance toughness, hardness, heat
resistance, corrosion resistance

Carbides:
Offer resistance to abrasion similar to cobble
stones
Carbide volume and composition can be altered
to offer enhanced wear resistance often at the
expense of toughness and machine ability
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Tool Steel

Carbides consists of Carbon (0.5 to +2%)


in combination with alloying elements

Cr
Mo
Si
W
V

(Chromium)
(Molybdenum)
(Silicon)
(Tungsten)
(Vanadium)

The carbides are harder than the matrix


and provide the wear resistance

Tool Steel

The carbides are formed during the


fabrication process and can be from 5 to
20% of the tool steel (alloy content or
carbide content)

Amount and type of carbides are different


in different tool steel grades

A2 D2 M2 M4

More carbides give more Wear


Resistance, but less Toughness it is a
trade off

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Tool Steel

Correct chemistry is important


A minimum amount of Carbon is needed to

form carbides during the manufacturing process, and


harden sufficiently during the heat treatment process

The total carbide content (in quality and quantity) is important for the Wear
Resistance,

Vanadium (V) carbides are the hardest and contribute most to wear resistance
M2 steel contains 2% Vanadium
M4 steel contains 4% Vanadium
D2 steel contains 0.90% Vanadium

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Tool Steel

Correct chemistry is important


Vanadium (V): forms very wear resistant carbides, but it also can reduce
toughness. Expensive.

Chromium (Cr): causes more uniform hardness while forming carbides


and increasing the strength of the material matrix. Least effective for the
Wear Resistance.

Silicon (Si): helps to increase toughness and strength when used with
other alloys.

Tungsten (W): dramatic impact on hardness and resistance to heat


effects in higher quantity (HSS materials). Expensive.

Molybdenum (Mo): helps to increase hardenability and red-hardness

when present with other alloys like chrome and manganese. Also forms
good wearing carbides. Important for tool maintenance.
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Tool Steel

The higher the Wear Resistance

the lower the Toughness.


Note: M4 is not M4PM

- At a similar hardness, greater amount of


carbides will show better wear resistance
- The higher the hardness for the same
carbide, the lower the toughness

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Results and Comparisons

Toughness

Conventional Tool Steels

Note:
Abrasive Wear Resistance
-M4 is not M4PM
-In general, dies need more toughness (cantilever effect), punches more wear resistance

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How is a Tool Steel made ?

Manufacturing Process (conventional way)


1. Desired chemical composition is melted in large
batches

How is a Tool Steel made ?

Manufacturing Process (conventional way)


1. Desired chemical composition is melted in large
batches
2. Poured into ingot molds to solidify

Carbides are now formed

Slow solidification process will cause Carbides


to form interconnected segregation networks

More carbides give more Wear Resistance and


less Toughness, but high volumes of carbides
(high alloy steels) result in more segregation
(= non-uniform microstructure)

3. Rolled or forged into bars


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How is a Tool Steel made ?

Manufacturing Process (conventional)


2 fundamental segregation problems:
o

More carbides give more WR, but high volumes


of carbides (high alloy steels) in a non-uniform
structure due to segregation makes the tool
difficult to manufacture (grinding problems;
chipping)

The segregations get elongated during rolling


or forging, get directionally oriented and reduce
toughness; grinding problems; chipping risk

For better tool steels, more carbide content is needed


(especially higher Vanadium contents), but this reduces
toughness.

Non-uniform
Carbide size and distribution

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Powder Metal

Crucible Powder Metallurgy (CPM)


Designed for high Vanadium content alloys

1. Desired chemical composition is melted


2. Rapid solidification into fine droplets (powder)

2-4 microns; segregation is virtually eliminated

3. Powder is consolidated

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Powder particles are bounded together under high


pressure

4. Forged or rolled into bars

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How Is Powder Metal Different From Traditional


Ingot Metallurgy?
AOD Melting

Ingot Casting

Alloy Segregation
at Billet

Conventional M4
Microstructure

Ingot Metallurgy

CPM Processing

Rapidly Solidified
Spherical Powder Hot Isostatic
Induction Melting
Pressing (HIP)
/Gas Atomizing

CPM M4
Microstructure
(as-HIP or forged)

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Tool Steel

CPM vs. Conventional


Powder Metallurgy allows higher volumes of Carbides,
without segregation problems, even increasing Toughness

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Results and Comparisons

Toughness

Powder Metals
shift the line!

M4PM

Abrasive Wear Resistance


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Tool Steel

Notes:
-The total Carbide volume determines the Wear Resistance (abrasive and adhesive).
-High Speed Steel starts at 3-4% Tungsten
- M2 and M4 mean high Molybdenum content and 2% or 4% Vanadium

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Tool Steel

Note:
-Wear Resistance = Abrasive + Adhesive
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Tool Steel Advantages

Benefits of Power Metallurgy:


Comparison of Wear Development on
Conventional (left) and P/M (right) Tool Steel

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Tool Steel Advantages

Summary of Qualities Our Customers Look For:

Quality Product, dimensional tolerances and finish


Wear Resistance (Adhesive and Abrasive)
Toughness and Good Fatigue Life
Appropriate Hardness for Material Type and Application
Red Hardness

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Tool Steel Advantages

What does Mate Do?


Mate optimizes toughness and wear for the appropriate
application
Not all punching environments are the same
Dies generally favor toughness, cantilever forces
Punches and dies in a less challenging environment favor wear

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Tool Steel

Control How the Material is Heat Treated


Tool steel bars
Machining processes

Soft Blanks
Hardening
Heat Treatment

Hard blanks
Machining processes

Stock
Point Finishing

Finished tool

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Tool Steel

Summary:
Quality, Chemistry, Processing, and Heat Treatment
are All Important!
Trade off between Wear and Toughness
Powder metals can help this trade off but adds costs

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