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Human Cultural Variations,

Social Differences, Social


Change and Political Identities

Learning Objectives
At the end of the discussion, the learners will be able to
demonstrate an understanding of:
1. human cultural variation, social differences, social
change, and political identities

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Activity 1: Picture Analysis (Examine the picture


and answer the following.)
1. What does the
picture imply?
2. Have you
experienced the
same situation? In
what particular
condition? Explain.
3. How did you handle
this kind of
experience?
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Activity 2. REFLECTION
Think of an experience where you had
observed differences, changes or identifying
qualities from another society or a group of
people you have encountered before. Narrate
this experience and explain the ways how you
handled it.

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DISCUSSION

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Cultural Variations
Culture- serves as a tool kit that provides us
with the equipment necessary to deal with the
common problems of everyday life (Swidler
1986; Brinkerhoff et al 1995).
Common and not-so-common problems are
readily resolved as culture offers immediate
solutions as long as every members of society
conforms.

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Cultural Variations in Mode of Dressing


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Cultural Variations in Body Language

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Significant Reasons for Cultural Variations


1. Environment- Why do Filipinos different
from Eskimos and Dumagats from Badjaos?
Environmental condition is one of the evident
reason as inhabitants must adapt in order to
survive.
. From this adaptation, peoples way of life can
be determined such as the kind of economies
which they practice.

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Eskimos, Dumagats and Badjaos


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Significant Reasons for Cultural Variations


2. Isolation- as one society cut its interaction
from other society, this follows a creation of a
set of norms and values distinct from the
previous culture.
. The condition of isolation prevent contact with
the other people, thus the kind of culture will
continue to develop free from influence and
contamination from other society.

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Iranian women looking at Mao Zedong at


Tehrans Museum of Contemporary Art
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Significant Reasons for Cultural Variations


3. Technology- when tools has become
available to one culture, it likely affects not
only the norms and values but also its
economic and social interactions and
relationships.
. This makes possible why Filipino dating and
courtship practices has significant differences
with the Filipino customs a decade ago.

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Filipino Courtship
Decades Ago

The Techie Way

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Significant Reasons for Cultural Variations


4. Dominant Cultural Themes- new ideas and
inventions introduced to a society are usually
accepted only when they fit into the existing
culture or represent changes that can be
absorbed without too greatly distorting the
prevailing patterns.
. Thus, every culture basically carries dominant
themes which makes distinction and direction
to the culture while for some it create a closed
system.
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Dominant Cultural Themes


Nadine Mahinhin

Nadine Galawgaw

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Social Differences
refer to the dissimilarities among the
individuals that is based on their social
characteristics and qualities.
For large society, these social differences are
more complex compared to small ones as this
includes race, class, age, ability, sex,
profession, gender, etc.

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Are there differences in races?


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Social Differences
More often than not, social differences result
to discrimination among individuals as
differences on their qualities and
characteristics are readily identifiable.
For example, in a diverse society where socioeconomic class evidently separates peoples
dwellings like the squatter areas in Tondo,
Baseco and Bagong Silang within Metro
Manila.
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Social Differences
Similarly, people with high status are afforded
with respect and importance compared to the
poor or homeless individuals.
Social differences, thus, can create societal
problems because of discrimination resulted
by inequality, inferiority complex and other
related problems.

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Social Change
the alteration of society over time (Andersen
and Taylor, 2007)
Social change may not only be regarded as a
process but also as a means, an end or even
as a social movement, a condition involving a
program, an ideology and a problem.
As long as there are evident differences from
the social and cultural components previously
upheld by the people in the society, change
exists.
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Alteration in Filipino Courtship


Decades Ago

The Techie Way

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Political Identity
is almost always associated with a group
affiliation and describes the ways in which
being a member of a particular group might
express specific political opinion and attitudes.
Generally, identity is often thought of as a
persons belief system and social affiliations.
There are various factors which create an
identity like nationality, race, gender, sexuality
and even the place where a person live.
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Political Identity
can be regarded as political arguments which
focus upon the interest and perspectives of
groups which people identify.
For instance, the equal protection clamored by
homosexual community rest upon the interest
and their perception as believed by each
member.

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