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SEDIMENT

TRANSPORT

ANALISA ANGKUTAN SEDIMEN


SUNGAI
1. SEDIMEN DASAR
1)

Karakteristik Material Dasar (Grain Size Graph, s)

2)
3)
4)

Geometri Sungai
Discharge Rating Curve (Qw vs H)
Lengkung Masa Debit.

2. SEDIMEN LAYANG
1)
2)
3)

Sediment Rating Curve (C vs Qw), atau (Qs vs Qw)


Discharge Rating Curve (Qw vs H)
Lengkung Masa Debit.

P
M
A
S

E
L

PARTICLE SIZE
DISTRIBUTION

LENGKUNG DEBIT
Solo Hilir di Babat
10
f(x) = 0.12 x^0.59
8 R = 0.79
6
Kedalaman Air (m)

4
2
0

500

1,000
Q (m3/s)

1,500

2,000

LENGKUNG MASA DEBIT

BED LOAD

BED LOAD TRANSPORT


Shields equation (shear stress
approach):
o c
q b S
o c
qb

qS

10

gd

q S
2

10

in which:
qb = bed load per unit width (m2/s)
q = unit discharge (m2/s)
= (s- )/ (0,06 < < 3,2)
d = representative particle diameter (1,56 mm
<d< 2,47 mm)
S = bed slope

BED LOAD TRANSPORT


Kalinske equation (shear stress
2
approach):
2
U
q
*

10
U* d
gd
b

in which:
qb = bed load per unit width (m2/s)
= (s- )/
g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
U* = kecepatan geser (m/s)
d = diameter sedimen rerata (m)
Not be good for high transport rate

BED LOAD TRANSPORT

Schoklitsch equation (discharge


approach):
q 2.500S q q
3
2

qcr

cr

0,26

5
3

3
2

7
6

in which:
qb = bed load per unit width (kg/m.s)
q = unit discharge (m3/m.s)
qcr = unit discharge at threoshold condition
(m3/m.s)
= (s- )/

BED LOAD TRANSPORT


Meyer-Peter-Mueller equation
(energy slope approach):
RS

qb 8 gd
0,047
d

3
2

Cchannel

grain

3
2

in which:
12R
C 10log

qb = bed load per unit width (m2/s)


k
R = hydraulic radius (m)
S = bed slope (-)
= dependent on bedform (-)
g = percepatan gravitasi (m/s2)
d = diamater rerata butiran sedimen (m)

MEASUREMENT OF
SUSPENDED LOAD
1. Bed Load Sampling
2. Suspended Sediment Sampling
1)
2)
3)
4)

Vertical Concentration Gradient


Sampling Location
Depth-Integrating Sampler
Point Integrating Sampler

3. Continuous Turbidity Measurement


1) Type of Turbidimeters
2) Relationship between Turbidity and
Suspended Solids
3) Limitations of Turbidity Data

BEDLOAD MEASUREMENT
Title: Small Bedload Sampler
Description: Named for coinventors Ed Helley and
Winchell Smith; built in the
1960s by Vigus and Lyle,
machinists in the Geology
Department of the University of
California, Berkeley. This
sampler was first used in
California and later at several
locations around the country.
Bedload samplers are used to
sample sand, silt, gravel or rock
debris carried by a stream or
immediately above the stream
bed. This sampler weighs 65 lb,
larger versions weigh over 100

Measured bedload sediment for 55 various Colorado


Rivers (from Williams and Rosgen 1989)

Bedload sediment rating curves stratified by stream


type; from the same data set as used for Figure II-25
(Rosgen 1996)

Helley-Smith Bedload
Sampler

BEDLOAD MEASUREMENT
Hydrological Services Handheld
Bedload Sampler
Hand Held Sampler
Easy to Use
Used for Wading Measurements
Field Sample Weighing System
Cast Aluminium Construction
SPECIFICATION
Orifice: 76mm x 76mm
Body: Epoxy coated cast aluminium
Wading Rods: (2 X 0.5 m ) Stainless
Steel
Sections supplied as standard.
Additional 0.5 m sections are
available on request
Sample Bag: Polyester mono filament
bag of 0.2mm mesh - will not absorb
water.
Carry Bag: Canvas
Packed Weight : 4 kg

BEDLOAD MEASUREMENT
The sediment grabber is a
simple device, the sort of
thing that shows up in
Engineering Statics
homework assignments: it's
open as it drops to the
bottom, because there's no
force on the handles; when
you pull up on the handles,
it closes, trapping a chunk
of mud and gravel
(sediment) inside. Then you
haul it back on the boat,
dump the contents in a big
box with a mesh bottom,
and wash away the mud to

BEDLOAD MEASUREMENT

GRAIN SIZE
DISTRIBUTION

Sediment Grade Scale


(Julien, 1995)

Class Name

Approximate Threshold Conditions for Granular Material


(Julien 1995).

Diameter
-- Angle of Repose -ds

Ratio
f
Class Name Type
mm
H:V
degrees

Boulder

Very Large

2048

Large

1024

42

Medium

512

42

Small

256

42

Cobble

Large

128

42

Gravel

Sand

Small
Very Coarse
Coarse
Medium
Fine
Very Fine
Very Coarse
Coarse
Medium

64
32
16
8
4
2
1
0.5
0.25

Fine

Size range [mm]

Sand ----------

Very coarse

2.000

- 1.000

Coarse

1.000

- 0.500

Medium

0.500

- 0.250

Fine

0.250

- 0.125

Very fine

0.125

- 0.062

Silt ----------

Coarse

0.062

- 0.031

Medium

0.031

- 0.016

Fine

0.016

- 0.008

Very fine

0.008

- 0.004

Clay ----------

Coarse

0.00400 - 0.00200

Medium

0.00200 - 0.00100

Fine

0.00100 - 0.00050

Very Fine

Very fine

0.00050 - 0.00024

Silt

>

from Horiz.
1.11 : 1

1.15 : 1
1.19 : 1
1.28 : 1
1.38 : 1
1.43 : 1
1.54 : 1
1.6 : 1
1.66 : 1
1.73 : 1

42

41
40
38
36
35
33
32
31
30

0.125

30

0.0625

30

Coarse

0.03125

30

Medium

0.015625

30

GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS

SUSPENDED
LOAD

MEASUREMENT OF
SUSPENDED LOAD
1. The US DH-95TM is a light-weight suspendedsediment/water-quality sampler capable of being used as a
hand-line sampler.
2. It is approximately the same size as the US DH-59 and US
DH-76 samplers. Neither the US DH-59 or US DH-76 can
meet the standards
"clean" water-quality/suspended
Thefor
USaDH-95TM
weighs approximately 29 lbs.
sediment samplers.
and is 22 inches in length from the tip of the
intake nozzle to the rear of the tailfin or 17
inches with out the intake nozzle and bottle.
The unsampled zone, the distance between the
centerline of the nozzle and the streambed, is
4.8 inches. The sampler is designed to use a
one liter Teflon or plastic bottle adapted to the
US D-95 CapTM or US D-77 sampler cap and
nozzle. The bottle cavity is machined from a
low-lead bronze casting and is coated with
plastic. The tail section is constructed from a
plastic.

MEASUREMENT OF
SUSPENDED LOAD
Depth-Integrating Suspended-Sediment Sampler Model
DH 59

This sampler is equipped with a


tail vane assembly to orient the
intake nozzle of the sampler into
the approaching flow as the
sampler enters the water.
The sample container is sealed
against a gasket in the head
cavity of the casting by pressure
applied to the base of the bottle
by a hand-operated springtensioned pull-rod assembly at
the tail of the sampler.
Suspended-sediment samples,
collected by the intake nozzle
projecting horizontally upstream
from the head of the casting, are

SNI 3414:2008

Tata cara pengambilan


contoh muatan sedimen
melayang di sungai dengan
cara integrasi kedalaman
berdasarkan pembagian
debit

MEASUREMENT OF
SUSPENDED LOAD

MEASUREMENT OF
SUSPENDED LOAD
Methods of Sampling
Depth Integrating Method:
Water depth < 4.5 m two direction (up and down)
4.5 m < Water depth < 9 m one direction
Water Depth > 9 m vertical should be divided into some
parts

Point Integration Method:


Two points; one from surface and the other from the
bottom
Three points; one from surface, second from middepth
and third from bottom.
Two points; one from 80 % and the other 20% of water
depth C mean = 3/8*C1 + 5/8*C2

MEASUREMENT OF
SUSPENDED LOAD
Frequency of Sampling:
Variations in the sediment load occur due
to;
Storm characteristics
Size, shape, geological and topographic
features of drainage area
Stream characteristics

Sediments should be measured twice a


week but sampling intervals can also be
varied from day to a week during low and
mean water or daily during floods.

MEASUREMENT OF
SUSPENDED LOAD
Suspended Sediment Load
Samplers
Instantaneous Suspended Load
Samplers
Time Integrating Suspended Load
Samplers
PointIntegrating Suspended Sediment
Samplers
DepthIntegrating Suspended Sediment
Samplers

MEASUREMENT OF
SUSPENDED LOAD

MEASUREMENT OF
SUSPENDED LOAD

MEASUREMENT OF
SUSPENDED LOAD

MEASUREMENT OF
SUSPENDED LOAD

MEASUREMENT OF
SUSPENDED LOAD
The US DH-2A Sampler
The US DH-2A is an enhanced
version of the US DH-2
sampler developed by the
Federal Interagency
Sedimentation Project (FISP).

Average annual sediment yield rate


versus drainage area size. 103-D- 1806.

SUSPENDED SEDIMENT VS
DISCHARGE
Qs= a Qwb
where:
Qs
Qw
a
b

= suspended transport, in tons per


day,
= discharge, in cubic feet (cubic
meters) per second,
= coefficient, and
= exponent.

Suspended sediment rating curve for Rio Too


Vaco. Near Villalba, Puerto Rico. 103-D-1807.

SEDIMENT RATING CURVE


DATA HASIL PENGUKURAN
KONSENTRASI SEDIMEN LAYANG
Nama Sungai
:
Lokasi
:
Waktu Pengukuran :

Lusi
..
..

Apa yang perlu diukur:


1. Penampang sungai (cross section)
2. Tinggi muka air (Peil schall atau
AWLR)
3. Kecepatan Arus
4. Pengambilan sampel air untuk analisa
konsentrasi sedimen layang

Sactter plot data konsentrasi sedimen layang terhadap debit air.

DISCHARGE MASS CURVE

TOTAL
LOAD

THE
END