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1. S U M A H A Y A N I
2. I L M I R A I D L A T U L R O S T A R I



Affect refers to emotion or feeling.

Affective domain is the emotional side of
human behavior. The development of
affective states or feelings involves a
variety of personality factors, both
feeling about one self and about others
with whom he/she comes into contact.

Five levels of affective domain known as Blooms

Taxonomy (1964):
Organization (Organizing the values into system)
Value system (characterization by value or value


The above taxonomy was first intended for educational

purposes, but it now has been widely used to understand the
affective domain of human behavior in general, included
verbal behavior. The basic concepts of Receiving,
Responding, and Valuing are universal. Second language
learner need:
a. To be receptive both the target language and these with
whom they are communicating with that target language.
b. To be responsive both to the person as well as the context
of the communication
To be willing to place a certain value on the
communicative act.

Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition

Input : the process of comprehending language

Intake : what is actually remembered, subsumed,

and internalized from various inputs to the

Output: the corpus of utterances that learnes
actuallu produce orally or in writing

The Affective Factors in SLA

There are some another factors. The new dimension of emotion
injected some excitement, even to the point of offering hope for
the discovery of a set of personality traits that would give us
ultimate answer to the causes of success (Guiora, Brannon, &
Dull, 1972). Affective factors are emotional factors which
influence SLA, such as:
1. Self-Esteem
2. Inhibition
3. Risk Taking
4. Anxiety
5. Empathy

1. Self-esteem is at the heart of virtually every aspect of

human behavior. It refers to a personal evaluation and
judgment of worthiness that is expressed in the
individual's attitude towards themselves. Three levels of
self-esteem relevance to SLA are:
a. Global self-esteem (overall): relatively stable in a
mature adult, quite resistant to change. It is the
general assessment one makes of ones own worth
over time and across a number of situations.
b. Situational self-esteem (or specific): refers to ones
self-appraisals in particular life contexts, such as
work, play or some certain discretely defined skills
such as communication, athletic or musical.

c. Task self-esteem: relates to particular tasks within

specific situations. Within the educational domain,
it might refer to one subject-matter area.

2. Inhibition in a person arises as he/she tries to defend or protect their

self-image or ego. Those people with higher self-esteem and ego
strength, are more able to withstand threats to their existence, and thus
their defenses are lower. Those with weaker self-esteem maintain
stronger wall of inhibition to protect their fragile ego.
The learner perceives the mistakes that he/she makes in the L2 as a
threat to their emotional well-being and self perception, then acquisition
will not occur or will occur much more slowly.
Ehrman (1993, 1999) suggested the significance of thin ego
boundaries (permeable) and thick ego boundaries.
The openness, vulnerability, and ambiguity tolerance of those with
thin ego boundaries create different pathways to success from those
with hard-driving, systematic, perfectionist, thick ego boundaries.
Pedagogical approaches quickly seized the opportunity to reduce
inhibition in L2 classrooms by creating a safe atmosphere for students
to take risks, communicate willingly and try out their budding language

3. Risk Taking, is one of the characteristics that has been

found to exist in "good" language learners is the willingness
to make intelligent guesses.
Beebe (1983) described some negative ramifications that
foster fear of risk taking in the classroom: a bad grade, a fail
on the exam, a reproach from the teacher, a smirk from a
classmate. Outside the classroom, L2 learners fear looking
ridiculous, failure to communicate, alienation, and loss of
identity. He found that successful L2 learners are usually
moderate risk-takers. They dont take wild risks or enter
into no-win situations.
If the learner is less inhibited, he/she is more willing to
take a chance on producing a "correct" utterance in the
second language.

4. Anxiety is associated with feelings of uneasiness, frustration, selfdoubt, apprehension, or worry (Scovel, 1978: 134).
Scovel further distinguishes anxiety into two types, they are:
a. Facilitative anxiety : Motivates the learner to fight the new
learning task. It gears the learner emotionally for approval
b. Debilitative anxiety : Motivates the learner to flee the new
learning task. It stimulates the individual emotionally to adopt
avoidance behavior.
The two types of anxiety based on Oxford (1990):
c. Helpful anxiety : It is a positive factor relates to some concern
or comprehension over a particular task to be accomplished.
d. Harmful anxiety : It is a negative factor that may relate to
nervousness or tension which rids someone from accomplishing
the job; some self-doubt which should be avoided at all costs.

5. Empathy is the process of putting ourself into someone

elses shoes, of reaching beyond the self to understand what
another person is feeling.
Psychologists agree that there are two necessary aspects to
the development and exercising of empathy: first, an
awareness and knowledge of one's own feelings, and
second, identification with another person (Hogan, 1969). In
other words, we cannot fully empathize or know someone
else until we adequately know ourself.
When a learner is acquiring a second language, he or she is
also acquiring, in a sense, a new personality, and a new
culture. It is the ability of a learner to open him or herself to
new cultural experiences and adapt these experiences as
their own is essential in the language acquisition process.

Affect is a feeling or emotion as distinguished from cognition, thought,
or action. In the case of language learning, it can refer to feelings or
emotional reactions about the language, about the people who speak
that language, or about the culture where that language is spoken.
Affective domain includes the manner in which we deal with things
emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms,
motivations, and attitudes.

Thank You.