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Name: Mr.

Date: 10/09/15
Class: 6A

Internal Resistance
The internal resistance of a source (cell or generator) is the resistance
against the moving charge in the source.

Load Resistance
The load resistance in a circuit is the effective resistance against the
moving charge outside the source of electric.

Terminal Potential Difference

Terminal potential difference or terminal voltage is the potential
difference across the two terminals (the positive terminal and
negative terminal) of an electric source (cell, battery or generator).

If the internal resistance is ignored, the

terminal potential difference is equal to the
If the internal resistance is present, the
terminal potential difference will be lower
than the emf.

cell has internal resistance

0.5and the potential difference
across the cell is 4V when a 2A
current flows through it. Find the
e.m.f. of the cell.
Ans: = 5V


p.d. across the terminals of a

cell is 3.0 volts when it is not
connected to a circuit and no current
is flowing. When the cell is
connected to a circuit and a current
of 0.37 A is flowing the terminal p.d.
falls to 2.8 V. What is the internal
resistance of the cell?
Ans: r = 0.54

cell with e.m.f. 3V and internal

resistance 1 is connected to a 5
resistor, and a voltmeter is
connected across the resistor. Draw a
labelled circuit diagram of this setup
and find the reading of the voltmeter.


V = 2.5V



diode is an electronic device

that conducts electricity in one
direction only.
It requires a voltage drop of ~0.7V
(silicon) and ~0.3V (germanium)
before it allows current to flow
through it.


bulbs and lamps contain a

filament through which current flows
giving off light and heat.
The curve shows that resistance
increases as current increases. This
is due to the rise in temperature of
the filament.
Does not obey Ohms Law.




V = total p.d. across the

I = Total current through
the resistors
RT = Total effective
resistance of R1, R2, and R3.
V = V1 + V2 + V3; energy is
From Ohms law: V = IR, so,
IRT = IR1 + IR2 + IR3
Dividing through by I we

a) the equivalent series resistance,
b) the series current
c) voltage drop and
d) power for each resistor in the following
resistors in series circuit.


the equivalent value of

resistance in the below circuit and
hence find the total current flowing.
Ans: Req = 12 ; IT
= 1A


the equivalent
resistance,Reqfor the following
resistor combination circuit.

Ans: Req = 10


sum of the currents entering a

junction is equal to the sum of the
currents leaving the junction.


law is based on the

conservation of charge.


the branch currents flowing in

the circuit below.
I1 = -0.143A
I2= -0.429A
I3 = 0.286A


the branch currents in the

circuit below. Label your currents
(e.g I1 , I2 & I3).
Ans: I1 = -0.23A, I2 = 1.8A, I3


the currents flowing in the

circuit below

Ans: I1 = 1.699A ; I2 = 4.075A ; I3 = 5.774A

voltage divider (also known as a

potential divider) is a simple circuit
that produces an output voltage
(Vout) that is a fraction of its input
voltage (Vin or Vs).



voltage divider is used in the

foll. areas:
Volume control sensing e.g
Light sensing e.g LDRs
Temperature sensing e.g thermistor
It is also sometimes used as a
reference voltage to power low
powered devices

Force sensitive
wire sensor



would be the reading on a

voltmeter if it was placed across the
terminals B and C?
Ans: 3V across B and C

In this voltage divider circuit, the values for the

parameters are given by:
Ra = 1000
Rb = 500
Vin = 15 v
a) Determine the value of the output voltage,
Vout, in volts.
b) What would happen if Ra is equal to zero?
c) What would happen if Ra approaches infinity?


the voltage divider:

R1 = R2 then the output voltage is

half the input voltage. *The ratio of
the resistance values determine the
output voltage
The output voltage is a fraction of
the input voltage

wheatstone bridge is a circuit

used to measure and compare
resistances. A typical arrangement
consists of two fixed resistances, a
variable resistor and an unknown
resistor which can be determined by
means of a ratio of the resistances.


the current through the

galvanometer (or the p.d across the
voltmeter) is zero, the ratio of the
resistors P and Q is equal to the ratio
of R and S. The bridge is then said to
be balanced.