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Burnett

Date: 10/09/15

Class: 6A

Internal Resistance

The internal resistance of a source (cell or generator) is the resistance

against the moving charge in the source.

Load Resistance

The load resistance in a circuit is the effective resistance against the

moving charge outside the source of electric.

Terminal potential difference or terminal voltage is the potential

difference across the two terminals (the positive terminal and

negative terminal) of an electric source (cell, battery or generator).

terminal potential difference is equal to the

emf.

If the internal resistance is present, the

terminal potential difference will be lower

than the emf.

0.5and the potential difference

across the cell is 4V when a 2A

current flows through it. Find the

e.m.f. of the cell.

Ans: = 5V

The

cell is 3.0 volts when it is not

connected to a circuit and no current

is flowing. When the cell is

connected to a circuit and a current

of 0.37 A is flowing the terminal p.d.

falls to 2.8 V. What is the internal

resistance of the cell?

Ans: r = 0.54

resistance 1 is connected to a 5

resistor, and a voltmeter is

connected across the resistor. Draw a

labelled circuit diagram of this setup

and find the reading of the voltmeter.

Ans:

V = 2.5V

*NTC

thermistor

The

that conducts electricity in one

direction only.

It requires a voltage drop of ~0.7V

(silicon) and ~0.3V (germanium)

before it allows current to flow

through it.

All

filament through which current flows

giving off light and heat.

The curve shows that resistance

increases as current increases. This

is due to the rise in temperature of

the filament.

Does not obey Ohms Law.

R1

R2

R3

resistors

I = Total current through

the resistors

RT = Total effective

resistance of R1, R2, and R3.

V = V1 + V2 + V3; energy is

conserved

From Ohms law: V = IR, so,

IRT = IR1 + IR2 + IR3

Dividing through by I we

get,

Calculate:

a) the equivalent series resistance,

b) the series current

c) voltage drop and

d) power for each resistor in the following

resistors in series circuit.

Find

resistance in the below circuit and

hence find the total current flowing.

Ans: Req = 12 ; IT

= 1A

Find

the equivalent

resistance,Reqfor the following

resistor combination circuit.

Ans: Req = 10

The

junction is equal to the sum of the

currents leaving the junction.

This

conservation of charge.

Find

the circuit below.

I1 = -0.143A

I2= -0.429A

I3 = 0.286A

Find

circuit below. Label your currents

(e.g I1 , I2 & I3).

Ans: I1 = -0.23A, I2 = 1.8A, I3

=1.6A

Find

circuit below

potential divider) is a simple circuit

that produces an output voltage

(Vout) that is a fraction of its input

voltage (Vin or Vs).

Potentiometer

Schematic

The

foll. areas:

Volume control sensing e.g

potentiometer

Light sensing e.g LDRs

Temperature sensing e.g thermistor

It is also sometimes used as a

reference voltage to power low

powered devices

Force sensitive

wire sensor

Photocell

Thermistor

What

voltmeter if it was placed across the

terminals B and C?

Ans: 3V across B and C

parameters are given by:

Ra = 1000

Rb = 500

Vin = 15 v

a) Determine the value of the output voltage,

Vout, in volts.

b) What would happen if Ra is equal to zero?

c) What would happen if Ra approaches infinity?

In

If

half the input voltage. *The ratio of

the resistance values determine the

output voltage

The output voltage is a fraction of

the input voltage

used to measure and compare

resistances. A typical arrangement

consists of two fixed resistances, a

variable resistor and an unknown

resistor which can be determined by

means of a ratio of the resistances.

When

galvanometer (or the p.d across the

voltmeter) is zero, the ratio of the

resistors P and Q is equal to the ratio

of R and S. The bridge is then said to

be balanced.

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