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Metabolism & Starvation

CHEM 124 FALL 2002

By: Cari, Naomi, & Abbey

Nutritional Requirements



Keeps digestive tract flowing
Only need small amounts for good health
Vitamins & Minerals


Need large amounts for good health

Carbohydrates, Lipids, & Proteins


Most dominant energy source

Simple carbohydrates

Monosaccharides (glucose)
Disaccharides (sucrose)

Complex carbohydrates



Concentrated source of energy

Provides twice the amount of energy

as an equal mass of carbohydrates

Essential fatty acids

Linoleic acid
Linolenic acid


Production of new tissue

Maintains & Repairs cells for production of

Other nitrogen compounds the body needs

There are several Essential amino acids

that the body doesnt produce

Catabolism of Food

Stage One

Stage Two


Acetyl Coenzyme A

Stage Three

Catabolic Pathway
Citric Acid Cycle

Metabolism of Carbohydrates

Broken down to glucose, fructose, &


Absorbed in small intestine & carried to liver.

Liver turns fructose & galactose into glucose.

Glycolysisseries of 10 reactions by which

glucose is oxidized to pyruvate.

Pyruvate is either reduced to ethanol or

lactate or oxidized to Acetyl CoA.

Metabolism of Fats

Glycerol is hydrolyzed in two steps as shown below

Fatty acids cannot be used for energy until they are

converted to fatty acyl CoA as shown below

Enter mitochondria for -oxidation


Amino Acid Metabolism

Net effect of transamination is for the use of

nitrogen to form glutamate & aspartate.

Oxidative deamination is source for NH4+ &

NADH, which eventually produces 2 ATP.

Urea Formation

Citric Acid Cycle

Citric Acid Cycle aka Kreb Cycle

The Principle process for generating the

reduced coenzymes NADH and FADH2
which are necessary for reduction of O2
and APT synthesis in e- transport chains.

Carbon skeletons from amino acids are

transformed into intermediates of the
citric acid cycle.

It is also a source for intermediates of



Bone marrow of healthy (left) to starving (right)

There are 3 stages of Starvation

Stage One

Glucose produced from glycogen in

the Liver

Glycogen only lasts a few hours

When used up fats and some proteins

are broken down into glucose

Stage Two

Fat is primary energy source

Liver breaks down fatty acids into ketone


After a week the brains starts to use

ketones and glucose for energy

Interrupts Biochemistry

Glycolysis decreases.

Oxaloacetate is decreased, but more

than normal is needed to perform

Lack of oxaloacetate reduces activity

of the Krebs cycle.

Acetyl CoA builds up and excess is

converted to ketone bodies.

Stage Three

Fat reserves are depleted.

Proteins become primary source of energy.

Muscles rapidly deplete.

Nonessential proteins are used up first.

Biochemical Problems at Stage 3

Kidneys take over Gluconeogenesis from the


Once nonessential proteins are used up the

essential proteins get used.

Eventually cell function stops.

Overall Effect

Pancreas reduces insulin secretions.

Metabolic rate is decreased.

Many organs begin to shrink.

Villi in gut shrink which means less

capacity to absorb nutrition.

Total body shut down and DEATH.


What are the primary energy sources for regular

metabolism and for each stage of starvation?

What is the main purpose of the Krebs Cycle?

What is the fate of pyruvate in the metabolism of


List three nutritional requirements and give an

example of each.

Carbohydrate, Fats, and Proteins must be broken down

into this enzyme before it can be used to make energy.