CULTURE & ORGNIZATION

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Ø LUBNA Ø HINA Ø Ø

MUZAMIL SABA

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Recently, psychologists have invoked the concept of culture to understand the natural and regional differences ..

The world culture has been derived from the Latin word cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate".

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One of the first definitions of culture was given over a century ago by E. B. Taylor, one of the founders of anthropology in 1870, defined culture as; “The complex whole which include knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”.

Culture may be understood as:

The set of common understandings expressed in language. Values, beliefs and expectations that members come to share. A system for creating, sending, storing and processing information

Anthropologists

Anthropologists most commonly use the term "culture" to refer to the universal human capacity to classify codify and communicate their experiences symbolically. This capacity has long been taken as a defining feature of the humans.

Many observers have shown that there are cultural differences in:
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Self Perception Relationship with World Time Dimension Public and Private Space


Key Components Of Culture
Values Norms Institutions Artifacts are things, or aspects of material culture.

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Culture And Its Nature
Ø it can be defining in two terms:
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Artifacts = material culture Practices and beliefs = adaptive culture

It is the primary ways that affect the way in which individual respond to the environment.

There are two different terms that define culture

Information

Group of Individual

Component of culture
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Language: Arts & Sciences: Thought: Spirituality: Social activity: Interaction:

All of the above collectively define the meaning of Culture.

Four important characteristics stressed by cultural relativists:
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. Symbolic Composition Systematic Patterning Learned Transmission Societal Grounding

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1. Symbolic Composition

A symbol is simply understood as an expression that stands for or represents something else, usually a real world condition. The use of words in a language provides the most obvious example. Words stand for perceived objective entities and states. Words as symbols, however, differ from the objects they represent and have special qualities, which is why they are so useful to us.

2. Systematic Patterning

Cultural elements as symbols assume their meanings in relationship to other symbols within a broader context of a meaning system. To interpret a symbol, therefore, anthropologists must investigate the interrelatedness of elements and the presence of unifying principles that connect symbols to form larger patterns and cultural wholes.

3 .Learned Transmission

Culture traits and broader cultural patterns inclusive of language, technology, institutions, beliefs, and values are transmitted across generations and maintain continuity through learning, technically termed enculturation.

4. Societal Grounding

Culture is observable only in the form of personal behavior but can be abstracted from individuals' actions and attributed to the social groups to which they belong. Accordingly, anthropologists underemphasize the importance of individual responsibility and creativity and focus on the common denominator of collective identity and symbols.

What is an organization?

The concept of an organization "...organization is a particular pattern of structure, people, tasks and techniques.. "

Features of an organization Composed of individuals and groups of individuals Oriented towards achievement of common goals Differential functions Intended rational coordination Continuity through time

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In other word it can be defined as;

“Sequential or spatial (or both) form in which a body of knowledge, data, people, things, or other things, is purposefully arranged”.

How an organization perform an function?
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Inputs: people, skills, knowledge, capital Conversion: manner of using people and technology that converts input into output Output: finished product produced that is used by the environment

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Organizational Theory
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 Study of organizational designs and organizational structures, relationship of organizations with their external environment, and the behavior of managers and technocrats within organizations. It suggests ways in which an organization can cope with rapid change.

Organizational structure

Organizational structure - is the formal system of task and reporting relationships that controls, coordinates, and motivates employees so that they cooperate to achieve an organization's goals. Structure affect: Behavior Motivation Performance Teamwork and cooperation Intergroup and Interdepartmental relationships

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Organization design

Organization design is the process of aligning an organization's structure with its mission. This means looking at the complex relationship between tasks, workflow, responsibility and authority, and making sure these all support the objectives of the business.

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Good organizational design helps communications, productivity, and innovation. It creates an environment where people can work effectively.

Many productivity and performance issues can be traced back to poor organization design

Consequences of poor organizational design
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Decline of the organization Talented employees leave to take positions in growing organizations Resources become harder to acquire Resulting crisis impels managers to change organizational structure and culture

Organizational change

“the process by which organizations move from their present state to some desired future state to increase their effectiveness is called organization change”.

Importance of Organizational Design and Change
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Dealing with contingencies Gaining competitive advantage

The ability to outperform other companies because of the capacity to create more value from resources

Organizational Effectiveness

Control: external resource approach

Method evaluates how effectively an organization manages and controls its external environment

Innovation: internal system approach

Method allows managers to evaluate how effectively an organization functions and operates

Efficiency: technical approach

Method evaluates how efficiently an organization converts a fixed amount of resources into finished goods and services

Organizational Culture

“The set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its various environments”

ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

Employees form an overall subjective perception of the organization based on such factors as degree of risk tolerance, team emphasis, and support of people. This overall perception becomes, in effect, the organization’s culture or personality. These favorable or unfavorable perceptions then affect employee performance and satisfaction, with the impact being greater for stronger cultures.

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Organizational culture, or corporate culture, comprises the attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organization. It has been defined as “the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization”

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It refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. Organizational values are beliefs and ideas about what kinds of goals members of an organization should pursue and ideas about the appropriate kinds or standards of behavior organizational members should use to achieve these goals.

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From organizational values develop organizational norms, guidelines or expectations that prescribe appropriate kinds of behavior by employees in particular situations and control the behavior of organizational members towards one another.

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It is basically used to refer to a system of shared meaning. In every organization, there are systems or patterns of values, symbols, rituals myths and practices that have overload over time. These shared values determine as to how the managers see and how they respond to their world.

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For example, the president of any company recognized the constraining role that culture was playing in his efforts to get his managers to be less authoritarian. He noted that organization’s culture would have to become more democratic if it was going to succeed in the marketplace. Senior management may try to determine a corporate culture. They may wish to impose corporate values and standards of behavior that specifically reflect the objectives of the organization.

Characteristics of Organizational Culture

Some researchers suggest culture can be analyzed by assessing how an organization rates on ten characteristics. They have been identified as follows:

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Individual Initiative The degree to of responsibility, freedom and independence that individual have. Innovation and Risk Taking The degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive, innovative and risk seeking. Direction The degree to which the organization creates clear objectives and performance expectations. Integration The degree to which units within the organization are encouraged to operate in a coordinated manner.




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Management Support The degree to which the managers provide communication, assistance, and support to their subordinates. Control The number of rules and regulation and the amount of supervision that is used to averse and control employee behavior. Identity The degree to which members identity with the organization as a whole rather than with their particular work groups or field of professional expertise.



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Reward System The degree to which reward allocations are based on employee performance citeria in contrast to seniority, favoritism, and so on. Conflict Tolerance The degree to which employees are encouraged to air conflicts and criticism openly. Communication Pattern The degree to which organizational communications are restricted to the formal hierarchy of authority.



Elements of Organization al Culture

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The Paradigm: What the organization is about; what it does; its mission; its values. Control System: the processes in place to monitor what is going on. Role cultures would have vast rulebooks. There would be more reliance on individualism in a power culture. Organizational Structure: Reporting lines, hierarchies, and the way that work flows through the business.

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Power Structure: Who makes the decisions, how widely spread is power, and on what is power based? Symbols: these include organizational logos and designs, but also extend to symbols of power such as parking spaces and executive washrooms. Rituals and Routines: Management meetings, board reports and so on may become more habitual than necessary. Stories and Myths: Build up about people and events, and convey a message about what is valued within the organization.

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These elements may overlap. Power structures may depend on control systems, which may exploit the very rituals that generate stories which may not be true.

Functions of Culture

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Supports the organization’s business strategy. Prescribes acceptable ways for managers to interact with external constituencies. Makes staffing decisions. Sets performance criteria. Guides the nature of acceptable interpersonal relationships in the company Selects appropriate management styles.

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Cross cultural Studies on organizational Culture

Organizational Culture and Human Resource Management Practices The Model of Culture Fit

The Model of Culture Fit means the sociocultural environment affects the internal work culture, which in turn influences human resource management practices. Study tested by two independent cross-cultural studies comparing Indian and Canadian managers and employees. the "participant" technique was used in Study 1 (the respondents indicated their own beliefs and assumptions), and the "observant" technique was used in Study 2 (the respondents indicated beliefs and assumptions of the majority of individuals in society). In both studies, India scored higher than Canada on paternalism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, loyalty toward community, reactivity, and futuristic orientation. Indian employees reported having less enriched jobs than did Canadian employees. Mediated multiple regression analyses supported the Model of Culture Fit. Results suggest that the paternalism, selfreliance, and employee participation constructs merit further exploration, as does participant methodology

Zeynep Aycan (Koç University, Turkey) Rabindra N. Kanungo (McGill University) Montreal, Canada Jai B. P. Sinha (ASSERT Institute of Management Studies, India)

The relationship between managerial values and managerial success in the United States, Japan, India, and Australia

Investigated the relationships between managerial values and managerial success for a diverse sample of 878 American managers, 301 Australian managers, 500 Indian managers, and 312 Japanese managers. Results show that value patterns were significantly predictive of managerial success and could be used as a basis for selection and placement decisions. Results also indicate that managers from the 4 countries were rather similar in terms of the personal values that were related to success. More successful managers had pragmatic, dynamic, and achievement-oriented values, while less successful managers had more static and passive values.

England, George W.; Lee, Raymond, Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 59(4), Aug 1974, 411-419. doi: 10.1037/h0037320

Types of Organizational Culture

There are four pure types organizational culture:

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1. Bureaucratic culture 2. Clan culture 3. Entrepreneurial culture 4. Market culture

Bureaucratic culture

An organization that values formality, rules, standard operating procedures, and their hierarchical coordination has s bureaucratic culture. Managers view their roles as being Good coordinators, Organizers and Enforcers of written roles and standards.



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Task, responsibilities and authority for all employees are clearly defined.

Research on B.C
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Motivation to manage in Hong Kong (Bahman P. Ebrahimi) Examined the construct validity of the Miner Sentence Completion Scale form Hierarchic. Managerial motivation or motivation to manage is to be major cause of managerial effectiveness and success in large bureaucratic organizations in the USA. Data collection from a sample of Hong Kong business students. It had been find out that preference for managerial jobs and employment with a large company positively correlated with levels of motivation to manage.

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Clan culture

Tradition, loyalty, personal commitment, extensive socialization, teamwork, self management, and social influences are attributes of a clan culture. Members shares membership. the feelings of pride in

It might mirror the foundation’s values of inclusion and humility at every level. It generates the feelings of personal ownership of business, product, or an idea. In addition, peer pressure important norms is strong. to adhere to

Research

Zeynep Aycan, Rabindra N. Kanungo &Jai B. P. Sinha had conducted the research on “Organizational Culture and Human Resource Management Practices The Model of Culture Fit”. Two independent cross-cultural studies comparing Indian and Canadian managers and employees. Study 1 (the respondents indicated their own beliefs and assumptions), Study 2 (the respondents indicated beliefs and assumptions of the majority of individuals in society). In both studies, India scored higher than Canada on paternalism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance, loyalty toward community, reactivity, and futuristic orientation.

Entrepreneurial Culture

High levels of risk taking, dynamism, and creativity characterize an entrepreneurial culture. There is a commitment to experimentation, innovation, and being on the leading edge.

Providing new and unique products and rapid growth.

Research

Wing S. Chow , Vivienne W.M. Luk had Examines the managerial attitude of women managers in China and Hong Kong. Measures particularly their preference of managerial practices and identifies the key job motivators, vital management skills, and reasons for job promotion. Data were collected by a questionnaire survey method. Managers in China are not as mature as those in Hong Kong. Hong Kong managers concentrate on planning and Chinese managers concentrate on directing.

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Market culture
The achievement of measurable and demanding goals, especially those that are financial and market-based characterize a market culture.  In a market culture, the relationship between individual and organization is contractual. that is, the obligation of each party are agreed upon in advance.  In this superiors' interactions with subordinates largely consist of negotiating performance-reward agreement or evaluating requests for resources allocations.

Strong vs. Weak Cultures

Benefits of Strong Corporate Cultures

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Culture is the social glue that helps hold the organization together. It enhances social system stability. It conveys a sense of identity for organization members. Culture serves as a sense-making and control mechanism that guides and shapes the attitudes and behavior of employees. This last function is of particular interest to us: • Culture by definition is elusive, intangible, implicit, and taken for granted. • Every organization develops a core set of assumptions, understandings, and implicit rules that govern day-to-day behavior in the workplace.

Organizational Culture Evolution 

Insights on Evolving Corporate Culture

Culture Maintenance
Once an organizational culture has evolved to a higher level, the challenge lies in maintaining it. To continuously develop a organization's people as well as new staff, there are practices within the organization that act to maintain it by giving employees a similar set of experiences.

Three forces

Three stages of socialization

Organizational Culture and change:
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Formulate a clear strategic vision. In order to make a cultural change effective a clear vision of the firm’s new strategy, shared values and behaviors in needed. This vision provides the intention and direction for the culture change. Display top-management commitment. It is very important culture change the top of willingness to management is to keep in mind that must be managed from the organization, as change of the senior an important indicator

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Model culture change at the highest level In order to show that the management team is in favor of the change, the change has to be notable at first at this level. The behavior of the management needs to symbolize the kinds of values and behaviors that should be realized in the rest of the company.

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Modify the organization organizational change

to

support

The forth step is to modify the organization to support organizational change. Select and socialize newcomers and terminate deviants A way to implement a culture is to connect it to organizational membership, people can be selected and terminate in term of their fit with the new culture. Develop ethical and legal sensitivity Changes in culture can lead to tensions between organizational and individual interests, which can result in ethical and legal problems for practitioners. This is particularly relevant for changes in employee integrity, control, equitable treatment and job security.

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The Bottom Line: Developing an Effective Organizational Culture

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Strengthening organizational culture

Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures?
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1. Individuals with different backgrounds or at different levels in the organization will tend to describe the organization’s culture in similar terms. 2. There can be subcultures. Most large organizations have a dominant culture and numerous sets of subcultures.

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3. A dominant culture expresses the core values that are shared by a majority: • • An organization’s culture. culture is its dominant an

This macro view of culture that gives organization its distinct personality.

Culture as a Liability
1. We are treating culture in a nonjudgmental manner.  2. Culture enhances organizational commitment and increases the consistency of employee behavior, but there are potentially dysfunctional aspects of culture.  3. Barrier to change:  • Culture is a liability when the shared values are not in agreement with those that will further the organization’s effectiveness. This is most likely to occur when an organization’s environment is dynamic.

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This helps to explain the challenges that executives at companies like Mitsubishi, General Motors, Eastman Kodak, Kellogg, have had in recent years in adapting to upheavals in their environment.

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