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GROUP MEMBER

TARANITHARAN A/L THIRUSELVAN


131172704
NIRMALAN A/L VEERAPAN
131171606
KANAGESWARI A/P KANAGASABAI
131170659
PRASSANNA A/P JEEWA
131172365

WORLD 1 HOLLOW
CARBON FIBER WHEEL
ST

GROUP MEMBER
TARANITHARAN A/L THIRUSELVAN
NIRMALAN A/L VEERAPAN
KANAGESWARI A/P KANAGASABAI
PRASSANNA A/P JEEWA
LECTURER
PROF. DR. ONG HUI LIN
DR. AZLIN FAZLINA OSMAN

131172704
131171606
131170659
131172365

INTRODUCTION
Koenigsegg Automotive AB is a Swedish manufacturer of high-performance sports
cars, based in ngelholm, Skne County, Sweden.
Over the past 60 years, CFRPs have been increasingly used to replace metal in
automotive applications where light weight has outsized value, primarily for
reducing fuel consumption.
Carbon fiber has been one of the major icon of our company and after Shelby
introduced their 1st one piece solid carbon fiber wheel, here in Koenigsegg we
advanced much further as we will be manufacturing the worlds 1st hollow carbon
fiber wheel.

INTRODUCTION
Most extreme type of prepreg
with epoxy resin (spaceship, F1,
and fighter jets)

Unidirectional
weaves laid up
in to omni
layup to absorb
impact from all
direction
(Decreased
Vibration)

CARBON FIBER

Good finishing on product and


easy to be shaped and lay up

Strongest
lightest
commercially
available (good
for saving fuel
consumption)

LITERATURE REVIEW
In tension strength, for a given
weight of material, it's at least 4.5
times stronger and stiffer than any
steel, aluminum or titanium in the
industry [1].

The weave of the fabric influences


the strength of the fabric in the
different directions [2].

Carbon fibers are very thin strands


of carbon which are much thinner
even than a human hair. Individual
fibers are corralled together in
what is known as a carbon fiber
tow line [1].

Corrosion resistance

CARBON
FIBER

[1] Chapman, M. K. (2011). Development of a Composite Wheel Rim for an FSAE Car.
[2] Schultz, J., Lavielle, L., & Martin, C. (1987). The role of the interface in carbon fibre-epoxy composites. The Journal of Adhesion, 23(1), 45-60.

LITERATURE REVIEW
Excellent properties: high strength,
high adhesion to substrates, high
electrical insulation, low toxicity, low
shrinkage, low cost and high
flexibility to various processes and
applications [1].

Fatigue strength superior to


aluminium alloy

EPOXY RESIN

Used to temperatures as high


as 175 C

compatible with all common


reinforcements [2]

[1] Chang, L., Zhang, Z., Breidt, C., & Friedrich, K. (2005). Tribological properties of epoxy nanocomposites: I.
Enhancement of the wear resistance by nano-TiO2 particles. Wear, 258(1), 141-148.
[2] M.A. Pilato and M.J. Michno, 'Advanced composite materials', Polymer International, vol. 38, pp. 1097-1026, 2003.

METHODOLOGY
The prepreg is
then laid on both
male and female
mold of the wheel

Hole drilled for


brake disk bolting

Treated with non


contaminating release
agent

VENTICORE
Technology

Using vacuum
suction pump the
VENTICORE tube is
sucked out through
the hole

Carbon fiber prepreg is


cut is to required shape
and dimension

Vacuum bagging and


autoclaved

VENTICORE hollow
carbon fiber wheel

Each mold or lay-up


surface shall be
cleaned

WORK PROCEDURE

How to make it hollow ?


VENTICORE TECHNOLOGY
1) Inflatable Hypalon [1] tube covered and sealed with Dahlar
Release Bag 125 [2] to form a tube balloon.
2) That shape must be able to fill according to the hollow structure of the
wheel mold in between the male and female.

3) The VENTICORE technology is a self-inflatable tube aided by the nitrogen gas expansion in the tube
when introduced to an environment of high temperature (autoclaving process). Besides the vacuum
bagging done before the autoclaving also provide the suction effect outside the tube to expand it further
and pressing the prepreg from male and female mold.
[1] http://www.timcorubber.com/rubber-materials/hypalon.htm
[2] Dahlar Release Bag 125 MSDS, Huntington Beach, CA - May 1, 2012

1) Each mold or lay-up surface shall be cleaned prior to lay-up, using noncontaminating cleaners, such as acetone or alcohol. Mold preparation shall be
performed outside the lay-up room. After cleaning, each mold shall be treated
with non-contaminating release agents (PVA Mold Release Agent)[1].
2) Then both mold will be laid up with carbon fiber prepregs and the
VENTICORE tube will be placed in between the molds and adjusted for a fit
closure.
3) Then it is prepared for autoclaving by vacuum bagging the mold and autoclaved
for about three to four hours, at up to 130C under a pressure of around 100 psi. [2]
4) After curing, the wheel is demolded and for now the VENTICORE tube is still
embedded inside the wheel, but back to its unpressurized state.
5) The center of the wheel will then be drilled with 6 holes for bolting purpose.
However this holes is the chance to come in contact with the VENTICORE tube so
before the bolting is done the tube will be extracted out by vacuum suction.

[2] Steven D.G,. 15 Dec 2003Preparing the carbon fibres retrived from http://www.f1technical.net/features/683
[1] Easy Composites SDS PVA MOULD RELEASE AGENT - Revision 1.1.0 - Revision date 22-Jul-2015

COST & COMMERCIALIZATION


COMMERCIALIZATION

High strength to weight ratio which is very efficient for fuel saving.
Improved version of carbon fiber wheel with hollow structure.
Easy and cheap manufacturing process without affecting the
properties seeked
Carbon fiber industries is still developing and maybe there will be
further advancing in the processing where the cost can be reduced
much further considering this as a step stone.

COST
200g prepreg = $26.00

LABOUR COSTING FOR ONE WHEEL

Hollow rim weight = 5kg=5000g

RM 1200/5 days = RM 240 (weekdays)

= 25 pieces

RM 1200/8 hours = RM 30

$26.00 x 25 = $ 650

Time taken to fabricate 1 wheel = 6 hours

1 wheel = $ 650

Thus, RM 30 x 6 hours = RM 180

Convert to RM ~ $ 1 = RM 4.48

One wheel require at least two labor to work

$ 650 x 4.48 = RM 2909.40

Which result in an increase in labor cost per wheel

RM 2909.40 + RM 13.44(Hypalon) + RM 1.50(mold release bag) +


RM 1.00(mold releasing agent) = RM 2925.34 (per front wheel)

2 (labors) x RM 180 = RM 360

MATERIAL COSTING FOR WHEEL

Back wheel is bigger and cost RM 300 more than front wheels

RM 1200 per week (per labor)

PROCESSING COSTING FOR ONE WHEEL

Thus total 4 set of wheel is

Heating+autoclave+pump electric charge = RM


30.00

RM 12,301.36

Drilling holes = RM 2.00


Total processing cost = RM 30.00 + RM 2.00
= RM 32

Environmental Aspect
Fuel save as the strength to weight ratio is high.
Does not biodegrade but the life cycle of carbon fiber
is much longer than steel.
However there is 3 way to recycle carbon fiber parts;
chemical method, mechanical method and thermal
method(pyrolysis)
Direct thermal oxidizer is used to reduce the air
pollution.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, these hollow carbon fiber wheel should be

commercialized because of its strength to weight ratio which is


tremendously huge and the carbon fiber industries is still developing
and maybe there will be further advancing in the processing where
the cost can be reduced much further considering this as a step
stone. Thus, the Koenigsegg hollow carbon wheel is a fantastic
solution for overall performance improvement

QUESTION
AND
ANSWER
SESSION