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SADAM HUSSAIN 4185

ZOHAIB ASIF 5786


MUHAMMAD ADNAN 5756

SHUTTERING
FORMWORK
AND
SCAFFOLDING

GENERAL
For the different construction activities like
Brick work above 5 Ft.
Surface finishing works like plastering, painting, walling etc.
Repair and alteration works.
Roof and slab pouring
Some temporary nature supports and structures are required like

Formwork & Shuttering


(Supporting Structure)
Scaffoldings
(arrangement for working plate forms)

FORM WORK

Definition
Qualities of formwork
Types of formwork
Formwork detail for different structural members
Removal of formwork
Maintenance of formwork
Cost of formwork
Advantages of steel form work

FORMWORKS
Its is an artificial support provided below and around the
concrete work

SHUTTERING
Shuttering usually refers to the process of using plywood to
form the mold, used to shape and support the concrete until it
attains sufficient strength to carry its own weight

FORM WORK AND SHUTTERING

Both terms are used to describe the process of creating a mold in


which concrete can be poured and contained as it hardens.

Shuttering and formwork both accomplish the same essential task,


but the materials used to accomplish this task can vary.

REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD FORMWORK

Containment:
Strength:
Resistance To Leakage:
Accuracy
Ease Of Handling
Economic

It can be reusable.

Its contact surface should be uniform.

It should be according to the size of member.

FORMWORK DEPENDENCE
Formwork can be made out of a large variety of materials.
The type of material to be used depends on:

Nature of construction
Availability of material.
Cost of material.
Overall project cost.
Time of completion.

FORMWORK TYPES
BASED ON MATERIALS

TIMBER
HARDBOARD
ALUMINIUM
PLASTICS
STEEL

TIMBER FORMS
Timber is required for practically all jobs of formwork. The timber bring used
for formwork must satisfy the following requirements:

It should be durable.
It should have sufficient strength characteristics.
It should be light weight and well seasoned without warping.
It should hold nails well.

Advantages of timber forms:


It is economical for small construction jobs.
It is design flexible and easy to erect.
It has good thermal insulation which makes it useful to be used in colder
regions
It can easily be made into any shape or size.

ALUMINIUM FORMS
Forms made fromaluminumare in many respects
similar to those made of steel.
Due to lower density,aluminumforms are lighter
than steel forms, and this is their primary advantage
when compared to steel.
As the strength ofaluminumin handling, tension
and compression is less than the strength of steel, it is
necessary to use large sections.
The formwork turns out to be economical if large
numbers of reuses are made in construction.
No changes can be made once the formwork is
fabricated.

PLASTIC FORMS

These forms have become increasingly popular for casting


unique shapes and patterns being designed in concrete because of
the excellent finish obtained requiring minimum or no surface
treatment and repairs.

Different types of plastic forms are available like glass


reinforced plastic, fiber reinforced plastic and thermoplastics etc

ADVANTAGES

Fiberglass-reinforced plastic is the most common and has


several advantages such as
The material allows greater freedom of design
Unusual textures and designs can be molded into the form

It is lightweight and easily stripped

If carefully handled, a number of reuses are possible making it highly


economical

DISADVANTAGES
The disadvantage of using plastic forms is that it does not lend
itself to field fabrication Hence, the design and planning of
this form must be carefully carried out.
Also care must take not to damage the plastic by the heat
applied for accelerated curing of the concrete

STEEL FORMS

Mostly used in large construction projects or in


situations where large number of re-uses of the same shuttering
is possible. Suitable for circular or curved shaped structures
such as tanks, columns, chimneys. Etc. & for structures like
sewer tunnel and retaining wall

ADVANTAGES

It can be used for a no. of times.


It is non absorbent.
Smooth finish surface obtained.
No shrinkage of formwork occurs.
Easy to use.
Its volume is less
Its strength is more.

HARDBOARD FORMS
Hardboard is a board material manufactured of wood fiber,
which is then refined or partly refined to form a panel having a
density range of approximately 50 to 80 pounds per cubic foot.
The boards available in large sheets have a hard, smooth
surface that produces a concrete whose surface is relatively
free of joint marks.
The thin sheets can be bent to small radii, which is an
advantage when casting concrete members with curved
surfaces.

FORMATION OF FORMWORK
propping and centering
shuttering
provision of camber
cleaning & surface treatment

FORMWORK TYPES BASED ON


STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
In concrete construction, formwork is commonly provided for
the following structural members.
Foundations
Wall
Column
Slabs & beams
Stairs

FORMWORK FOR FOUNDATIONS

Column
Foundations
It consists of
Side Supports
Side Planks
Cleats

Cleats
Side Support

Side Planks

FORMWORK FOR FOUNDATIONS


Wall
foundations
It consists of
Plywood
Sheeting
Struts

FORMWORK FOR WALL


Vertical Posts

It consists of:
Timber sheeting
Vertical posts
Horizontal members
Rackers
Stakes
Wedges

After completing
one side of
formwork
reinforcement is
provided at the
place then the
second side

Struts

FORMWORK FOR COLUMN


It consists of:
Side & End Planks
Yoke
Nut & Bolts
Two end & two side
planks are joined by
the yokes and bolts.

FORMWORK FOR SLABS & BEAMS


It consists of
Sole plates
Wedges
Props
Head tree
Planks
Batten
Ledgers

Beam formwork
rests on head tree
Slab form work rests
on battens and joists
If prop height are
more than 8 provide
horizontal braces.

LINTEL FORMWORK
It consists of
Head tree
Timber or steel sheets
Struts

FORMWORK FOR STAIRS


It consists of
Vertical & inclined
posts
Inclined members
Wooden Planks or
sheeting
Stringer
Riser Planks

Riser Planks

REMOVAL OF FORMWORK
Time of formwork removal depends on
the following factors
1.Type of Cement
1. Rapid hardening cements require lesser
time as compared to OPC (Ordinary
Portland Cement)
2.Ratio of concrete mix
1. Rich ratio concrete gain strength earlier
as compared to weak ratio concrete.
3.Weather condition
1. Hydration process accelerates in hot
weather conditions as compared to cold
and humid weather conditions.

TIME OF REMOVAL OF
FORMWORK
Sr.
No

OPC

Rapid
Hardening
Cement

Structural Member

(Ordinary Portland
Cement)

1
2
3
4

Beam sides, walls & Columns

2-3 Days

2 Days

Slab (Vertical Supports remains intact)

4 Days

3 Days

10 Days

5 Days

8 Days

5 Days

Beams & Arches (Complete

14 Days

5-8 Days

Beams & Arches (Complete

21 Days

8-10 Days

Slab (Complete Formwork removal)


Beams (Removal of Sheeting, Props
remains intact)
formwork removal) (up to 6 m span)
formwork removal) (more than 6 m span)

MAINTENANCE OF
FORMWORK
Due to continuous use wooden planks &
steel plates surfaces become uneven and
require maintenance.
For wooden formwork use cardboard or
plastic fiber board. Bolt hole places must
also be repaired.
For steel formwork plates must be
leveled by mallet and loose corners must

COST OF FORMWORK
For normal works cost of formwork is
about 30%-40% of the concrete cost.
For special works cost of formwork is
about 50%-60% of the concrete cost.
Formwork cost is controlled by the
following factors:

Formwork Material cost


Formwork erecting cost
Formwork removal cost
Formwork jointing cost (Nails and Cables)
Labor charges.

SCAFFOLDING
Its a temporary structure to provide a platform at different levels
of a building for workers and Materials.

WHY SCAFFOLDING IS
REQUIRED
Scaffold is constructed for the following reasons.
1) Scaffold is constructed for masonry work of structures,
walls, columns etc. above ground level, generally above 1.5m.
2) For surface finishing such as plastering, painting, cleaning
of a building etc. at higher levels.

TYPES OF SCAFFOLDING

Following are the types of scaffolds:


Single Scaffolds
Double Scaffolds
Ladder Scaffolds
Cantilever Scaffolds
Suspended Scaffolds
Steel or Tubular Scaffolds

DEFINITION

Scaffold
It is the temporary support system provided for the
construction & maintenance purposes.
It consists of supports and a working platform for
workers and Materials.
Scaffolding
Method of construction of scaffolds is called scaffolding.

SINGLE SCAFFOLDS

It consists of
Standards (v posts)(10 cm)
Putlogs (7.5 x 7.5)
Ledgers (
Wooden boards
Braces
Used for ordinary buildings

DOUBLE SCAFFOLDS

It consists of
Two rows of standards.
15 cm, 1.5 m
Shores are provided.

Used for superior works

LADDER SCAFFOLDS

It consists of
Brackets for Plate form.

CANTILEVER SCAFFOLDS

It consists of
Cantilever
Struts
Standards
Putlogs
Plate forms

It is used above ground


level

SUSPENDED OR MOBILE
SCAFFOLDS

It consists of
Ropes
Working platforms
Ropes can be raised
Manually or mechanically
Used for light construction
and finishing works of
multistory buildings.

STEEL OR TUBULAR SCAFFOLDS


It consists of
Steel tubes (1-1/2 2-1/2 diameter)
Coupler or Clamps (to hold pipes in different
positions)
Prop nuts (to hold single pipes)
Bolts, Nuts & washers
Wedge & Clip

SCAFFOLD PIPES

COUPLER OR CLAMPS

SCAFFOLD FITTINGS

Double Coupler
It joins ledgers and standards.
Swivel Coupler
Composed of two single couplers and used to join two scaffolds at any angle.
Putlog Coupler
Used to join putlogs with transom.
Base Plate
Used at the base of the standards.
Split joint Pin
Its a connection fitting used to join scaffold tubes.
Reveal Pin
It fit in to the end of a tube to form an adjustable strut.
Putlog end
A flat plate used at the end of a scaffold to convert it in to a putlog.

SCAFFOLD FITTINGS

SCAFFOLD FITTINGS

PROP NUTS, CLAMP AND FASTENERS

WEDGE & CLIP

REFERENCES
http://www.advancescaffold.com/international-standard.html
http://www.cityu.edu.hk/CIVCAL/book/misc_advanced.html
http://
dda2132.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/syazli-fathi-2012-lectur
e-notes-2012-dda2132-chp-4-formwork-materials-15072012.pdf
http://civil-resources.blogspot.com/2010/06/formwork.html

THANK YOU