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# MAGNET AND EARTH

MAGNETISM
PHENOMENON OF ATTRACTION OF SMALL BITS OF IRON ,
COBALT, NICKEL ETC. TOWARDS THE ORE IS CALLED
MAGNETISM.
A BAR MAGNET IS THE MAGNETIC DIPOLE, WHICH SHOWS
ABILITY TO ATTRACT MAGNETIC SUBSTANCES SUCH AS IRON
NICKEL AND COBALT.

## PROPERTIES OF BAR MAGNET:

1. It attracts magnetic substances like iron, nickel and cobalt.
2. When magnet is place in a heap of iron fillings, they cling to the
magnet. The attraction appears to be the maximum at the ends
of the magnet. These ends are called poles of the magnet.
3. magnetic poles always exists in pairs.
4. When magnet is suspended freely in air with the help of an
unspun thread, it always align itself in geographical north
and south.
5. Like pole of bar magnet repel each other while unlike poles attract
each other.

IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS
1.
2.

## Magnetic Field : The space around a magnet within which its

influence can be experienced is called its magnetic field.
Uniform Magnetic Field : A magnetic field is said to be uniform
if it has same magnitude and direction at all points of that
region.

In the plane of
paper

3.

4.
5.

6.

## Magnetic poles : The regions of apparently concentrated

magnetic strength in the magnet where the magnetic attraction is
maximum.
Magnetic axis : the line passing through the poles of a magnet .
Magnetic equator : the line passing through the centre of the
magnet and perpendicular to the magnetic axis.

## Magnetic length : the distance between the two poles of the

magnet. It is slightly less than the geometric length.

## 5. The force of attraction or repulsion between two pole is directly

proportional to their pole strengths m and m and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance between two poles.

## Magnetic lines of force:

These lines physically signify the region of magnetic field
around a bar magnet Or magnetic dipole.
OR
It can also be defined as a geometrical path along which a
hypothetical isolated north pole a magnet would move.

## Properties of magnetic lines of force:

1. Magnetic line of force are closed continuous curves.
2. Outside the magnet they move from north to south pole while
inside the magnet these lines move from south to north pole.
3. The tangent drawn at any point of magnetic lines of force gives
the direction of resultant magnetic field at that point.
4. The larger no. of magnetic lines of force crossing per unit area
represent stronger magnetic field and vice-versa.
5. Magnetic lines of force contract longitudinally due to attraction
between unlike pole and they dilate due to repulsion b/n like
poles.
6. Two magnetic lines of force never intersect each other.

## Assuming two magnetic lines of force intersect at point P. We can draw

two tangents T and T at point of intersection of two lines. This
would give two directions of resultant magnetic field, which is
impossible. Thus two magnetic lines of force can never intersect
each other.

## Magnetic dipole moment (M) :

It measures the strength of a magnetic dipole.
It is a vector quantity and the direction of magnetic
dipole moment is from S-pole to N-pole.
For a given bar magnet of length 2l and pole strength
m is given by formula:
M = m x 2l
Since a current carrying coil also behaves as dipole,
therefore a circular coil of radius r having N no. of
turns and carrying current I will have dipole moment:
M=NIA
The unit of magnetic dipole moment in S.I. System is A-m2.
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## Gausss law in magnetism:

It states that the total magnetic flux linked with the closed surface
OR
Surface integral of magnetic field over a closed surface is equal to zero.

From this law , we conclude that monopole does not exist in case of
a magnet i.e. why total pole strength inside the closed surface
M = m1 + m2
=mm
=0

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## The earth behaves as magnet. This is concluded on the basis

following experimental observations:
1. A bar magnet suspended freely in air with the help of unspun thread
always align itself along geographical north south direction.

## 2. When we plot magnetic lines of force for a given bar magnet, we

obtain null OR neutral point. This shows the presence of other
magnetic field.
3. If we buried an iron piece inside the earth along geographical north
- south direction, after few months an iron piece starts showing
magnetic behaviour

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## Proposed theories of earths magnetic field

1. According to prof. Brackett earths magnetism may be due to
rotation of earth around its axis. As we know that every substance
is made of charged particles like protons and electrons, therefore a
substance rotating about an axis is equivalent to circulating
currents which are responsible to for magnetic behaviour of earth.
2. In the outer space of the earths atmosphere gases are in ionized state due
to cosmic rays coming from the sun. As earth rotates about its own axis,
these charged particles also rotate about the same axis. Hence strong
electric currents are set up due to movement of charged ions and these
currents might be magnetising the earth.

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## Some important terms and their definitions:

1. Magnetic axis : An imaginary line joining north pole to south
pole of freely suspended bar magnet is called
magnetic axis.
2. Geographic axis : An imaginary line joining north pole of the earth to
south pole is called geographic axis.
3. Magnetic meridian: A vertical plane passing through magnetic axis
is called magnetic meridian.
4. Geographic meridian: A vertical plane passing through geographic
axis is called geographic meridian.

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## 5. Geographic equator : Horizontal sphere bisecting

geographic axis.
6. Magnetic Equator : horizontal sphere bisectic magnetic
axis.

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## Elements of earths magnetism

Magnetic elements of earth at given place are quantities which
describe the magnetic field of the earth in magnitude and
direction both at that point. There are three magnetic elements
are as follows:
1. Angle of declination OR Magnetic declination (): At a given place
the angle between magnetic axis and geographic axis.
OR
At a given place an angle between magnetic meridian and geographic
meridian is called magnetic declination.
It is about 200 west of the polar axis.

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## 2. Magnetic inclination OR Angle of dip ( ) : At a given place it

is defined as the angle which the direction of the total
earths magnetic field makes with the horizontal line in
magnetic meridian.
The angle of dip is measured by an instrument called Dip circle.
The value of angle of dip at poles is 90 0, while at magnetic
equator it is 00. At rest of places it lies in between 00 and 900.

## 3. Horizontal component of earths magnetic field: It is component of

total intensity of earths magnetic field in horizontal direction in
magnetic meridian.
The horizontal component BH = B cos (1)
The vertical component

BV = B Sin (2)
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## B2 = BH2 + BV2 ..(3)

Dividing equation 2 by equation 1

tan = BV / BH ...(4)
Where B is the total intensity of earths magnetic field.

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## Some important terms in magnetism

1. Magnetic permeability (): It is an ability of a material to permit
the passage of magnetic lines of force through it.
2. Relative permeability (r): It is defined as the ratio of magnetic
permeability of the substance to magnetic permeability of air
or vacuum.

r = m 0
3. Intensity of magnetisation ( I ): It represents
/ the extent to which

field.

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## Numerically the intensity of magnetisation is defined as the

magnetic moment per unit volume of material.

I=M/V
Where M is the magnetic dipole moment and V is the volume.
The S.I. unit of intensity of magnetisation is Ampere /meter.
4. Magnetising Intensity (H)/Magnetising Force : it is the degree to
which a magnetic field can magnetise a material.
H = B0 / 0
5. Magnetic Induction (B) : it is the no. of lines crossing per unit area
along perpendicular direction.
B = 0 ( H + I)

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## 6. Magnetic susceptibility( ): This the property of material

which determines how easily a specimen can be magnetised.

## Numerically it is defined as the ratio of intensity of

magnetisation to the strength of magnetizing field (H).

=I/H
The relative permeability is related with magnetic susceptibility as

= 1+
r

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## The magnetic behavior of materials can

be classified into the following five major
groups:
1. Diamagnetic material
2. Paramagnetic materials
3. Ferromagnetic materials

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S.No Property

Diamagnetic
substances

Paramagnetic
substances

Ferromagnetic
substances

1.

Effect of
magnets

They are
They are feebly
feebly repelled attracted by
by magnets
magnets

2.

In external
Acquire feeble
magnetic field magnetisation
in the opposite
direction of
magnetising
field.

Acquire feeble
magnetisation
in the direction
of the
magnetising
field.

Acquire strong
magnetisation in
the direction of
the magnetising
field.

3.

In a nonTend to move
uniform
slowly from
magnetic field stronger to
weaker parts
of the field

Tend to move
slowly from
weaker to
stronger parts
of the field

Tend to move
quickly from
weaker to
stronger parts of
the field

They are
strongly
attracted by
magnets

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Diamagnetic
liquid in
Magnetic Field

Paramagnetic &
Ferromagnetic
liquid in
Magnetic Field

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S.No Property

Diamagnetic
substances

Paramagnetic
substances

Ferromagnetic
substances

4.

In a uniform
magnetic field

A freely
suspended
rod alligns
itself
perpendicular
to the field.

A freely
suspended rod
alligns itself
parallel to the
field.

A freely
suspended rod
alligns itself
parallel to the
field.

5.

Succesptibility
value

Small and
negative
-1<m<0

Slightly greater
than 1
1<m<1+

## Very large and

positive
m>1000

6.

Relative
permeability

Slightly less
than 1
0<r<1

Slightly greater
than 1
1<r<1+

Of the order of
thousands
r >1000

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Diamagnetic
bar in
Magnetic
Field

Paramagnetic &
Ferromagnetic
bar in Magnetic
Field

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Permeability of
Diamagnetic
specimen

Permeability of
Paramagnetic &
Ferromagnetic
specimen

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S.No Property

Diamagnetic
substances

Paramagnetic
substances

Ferromagnetic
substances

7.

Effect of
temperature

m is
independent
of temp.

m varies
inversely with
temp. m 1/T

m varies
inversely with
temp. m 1/T

8.

Removal of
magnetising
field

Magnetisation
lasts as long
as the
magnetising
field is
applied.

Magnetisation
lasts as long as
the
magnetising
field is applied.

Magnetisation is
retained even
after the
magnetising field
is removed.

9.

Variation of M
with H

M varies
linearly with H

M varies
linearly with H
but attains
saturation at
low
temperature

M varies non
linearly with H
and attains
saturation
ultimately.

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the temperature.
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## The magnetic permeability of ferromagnetic substances is very

large i.e. its value lies in between 100 -1000.
The susceptibility is also very large for these materials and it depends
reciprocal to the temperature.

Curies Law:
According to this law the magnetic susceptibility of
paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials varies
reciprocal to the absolute temperature of substance (T).
` 1/T

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S.No Property

Diamagnetic
substances

Paramagnetic
substances

Ferromagnetic
substances

10.

Hysteresis
effect

No hysteresis

No hysteresis

Shows
hysteresis

11.

Physical state
of material

Solid, liquid or
gas

Solid, liquid or
gas

Only solids

12.

Examples

Bi, Cu

Al, Na

Fe, Ni

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HYSTERESIS

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HYSTERESIS
It means lagging behind.
Residual Retentivity: It is the value of intensity of
magnetisation for which magnetic induction becomes
zero. Here it is Q point.
Coercivity : It is the value of magnetic induction in
reverse direction for which intensity of magnetisation
becomes zero. Here it is R point.

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## The lagging of intensity of magnetisation behind the

magnetic induction is known as HYSTERESIS
For Iron (Fe) : Retentivity is more
Coercivity is less
There will be less loss of energy
in magnetising it. hence used in
transformers.
For steel : Coercivity is more
Retentivity is less

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## PERMANENT MAGNETS : the materials which retain

their ferromagnetic properties for a long time at room
temperature. Eg : steel
The material should possess:
High retentivity so that magnet is strong.
High coercivity so that magnetisation is retained.
High permeability so that it can be magnetised easily.
ELECTROMAGNETS : They are tha magnets in which
hysteresis loss is small. Eg : soft iron
They Possess:
High permeability
Low retentivity

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## TRANSFORMER CORES : The material used for

making cores of tranformer must have following
characteriatics:
High initial permeability
Low hysteresis loss
Low resistivity to reduce losses due to eddy currents.

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