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Movement of subtances

across the plasma

in everyday life

Substances Transported Into

(Enter) The Cells :

Substances Eliminated From

(Leave) the Cells :

Digested food substances :

Waste products from metabolic

processes :

Amino acid
Fatty acid

Carbon dioxide
Lactic acid
Excess water

Animal and plant cells

The effects of

Hypertonic solution
Isotonic solution
Hypotonic solution

Isotonic solution
All cells contain a solution of salts n other
Plants-solutes are located in the vacuole
-cellulose cell wall( fully permeable to
solutes and water)
The interstitial fluid surrounding animal
cells is usually isotonic to the cytoplasm

Isotonic Solution in which the solute concentration

Is equal to that of the cytoplasmic fluid.

Water diffuses into and out of the cell at equal rates.

No net movement of water across the plasma membrane

The cell retains its normal shape

Water always flows in the direction that tends to

equal the water concentration on both sides of the

Hypotonic solution
When the concentration of solute outside
a cell is lower than the concentration
inside the cell.
Cell + Hypotonic solution = There is a net
movement of water from outside into the
cell. So, water enters the cell
Causing it to swell up.

The cell will gain water and grow larger. In plant cells, the central vacuoles will fill
and the plant becomes stiff and rigid, the cell wall keeps the plant from bursting
In animal cells, the cell may be in danger of bursting, organelles called
CONTRACTILE VACUOLES will pump water out of the cell to prevent this.

The bursting of red blood cells
Plasma membrane is too thin have to
withstand the osmotic pressure
It is extremely hypotonic ,cells swell up
and eventually burst
In animal cells

Plant cells
Do not burst because the rigid cell wall
Plant cells + Hypotonic solution= water
diffuses into the large vacuole by osmosis
The vacuole expand and swell up
The cells become turgid
The cell wall is strong enough to resist the
Cells produce turgor pressure.

Hypertonic solution
Solution in which the concentration of
solutes in the solution is higher than the
concentration of solutes within the cell.
Water moves from inside to the outside of
the cell
The cells will shrink
The red blood cells have undergone

A shrinking of cytoplasm due to osmosis
The cells become flaccid
The cellulose cell wall does not shrink
because it is strong
Wilting will occur

Osmosis application
Unicellular organism Paramecium sp
Live in freshwater surrounded by
hypotonic solution.
Water flowing onto the cytoplasm by
osmosis osmoregulation

How about plant???

How about food


Other methods that not only help to preserve food, but also add flavour,
include pickling, salting, smoking, preserving in syrup or alcohol, sugar
crystallisation and curing.

Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria,

fungi, and other micro-organisms,