You are on page 1of 30



Topics for Training

Basics of Motor.
Frequency converter & necessity.
Intermediate circuit & D.C.Bus.
Dos and Donts.

Basics of Motor

Motor Supply
Sources for Motor supply
- Direct On Line : No control on motor speed,
takes approx 6 times nameplate current.
- AC drives : Speed control possible, soft start
can be achieved, adjustable current limit

Changing Frequency Changes Motor Speed

Motor Equations - Speed

The speed of an Induction machine is
related to the supply frequency by
the following equation,
N=120f (1-s)/P ------------------------(1)
N = Speed in rpm
f = Supply frequency
S = Motor slip
P = Motor poles

The Turning Force Applied to a
Shaft Tending to Cause Rotation


Lever Arm Length


Motor Equations - Torque

Output torque of the motor is expressed by
following equation,
T=3VIcos mx974/N ----------------- (2)
T=Motor output Torque (Kg-m)
V=Line to Line voltage (kV)
I=Line Current (A)
cos=Power factor
m=Motor efficiency
N = Speed in RPM

AC Motor Horsepower

HP =

Torque x Speed

Torque = Lb-Ft
Speed = RPM
= constant

Frequency Converter &


Frequency Converter

It is an electronic device that takes a fixed AC supply and converts

into a variable output voltage and frequency to control the speed
of a
The speed of the motor is dependent on the number of poles in
the motor
and the supplied frequency.

Necessity of Frequency Converter

Machine or Process Requirements
Energy Savings

Automated Factory Concept

Productivity Increases

Necessity of Frequency Converter

Improved Power Factor

Drive offers a fundamental Power Factor of near Unity at all Loads and






Un controlled Rectifiers

The mean value of the pulsating DC voltage is 1.35 mains voltage.

Controlled Rectifiers

The controlled rectifier supplies a DC voltage with a mean value of 1.35

mains voltage Cos Alpha.

Intermediate Circuit & D.C.Bus

Intermediate Circuit


IGBT & IGBT Switching

Insulated-Gate-Bipolar (IGBT) is High- frequency transistor.

Dos & Donts

Earth screen/armour/conduit at both ends for

motor cables and

Dos for Inverters

control cables.
- Ensure EMC.

Rated current output of frequency converter

=>Motor current.
- Avoid overloading of the drive.
Select IP Class for drive based on Environment
- Ensure the proper functionality of the drive in

Dos for Inverters

Correct protective earthing of the drive.
- Safety against high leakage current of drive.
Frequency converter must be installed vertically with minimum
distance over and below frequency converter.
- Effective air circulation & cooling of the converter.
Motor cables as short as possible.
-Lower rise time and peak voltage.
Separation of mains, control and motor cables.
- Avoid interference over coupling.
Braided screened/armoured motor and control cables.
- Minimum coverage of 80%.
- Optimise EMC immunity of the control cables.
- Optimise EMC emission from the motor cables.

Dos for Inverters

Regular checks on fluff entry in drives for textile applications.

- Cause rise in the temperature finally tripping the drive.
Ensure for the required volume and rate of air flow for drives
in an enclosure.
- Cause rise in the temperature finally tripping the drive.

Donts for Inverters

Output Power Factor Capacitors

The capacitors look like short circuit.

The drive will trip.
Does not change the drives input power factor
The drives input displacement power factor is high

Donts for Inverters

Input Power Factor Correction

The input displacement power factor of a drive is high.

Over-correcting displacement power factor is not good.
Power factor correction could cause resonance in the power system.

Donts for Inverters

Input Disconnect for Start-Stop

The drive already has a start/stop circuit

The drive cant interact with the control system
Moisture can condense on a cold drive.
Could over-heat the pre-charge circuit of the drive.

Donts for Inverters

Non-Interlocked Output Disconnect

Causes a large current draw if the drive is at full speed and the motor is
May trip the drive.
Instead, interlock to the drive using a auxiliary contact to terminal 29
(coasting stop).