You are on page 1of 30

BY S.

K JAISWAL

Topics for Training


Basics of Motor.
Frequency converter & necessity.
Rectifiers.
Intermediate circuit & D.C.Bus.
Inverter.
Dos and Donts.

Basics of Motor

Motor Supply
Sources for Motor supply
- Direct On Line : No control on motor speed,
takes approx 6 times nameplate current.
- AC drives : Speed control possible, soft start
can be achieved, adjustable current limit

Changing Frequency Changes Motor Speed

Motor Equations - Speed


The speed of an Induction machine is
related to the supply frequency by
the following equation,
N=120f (1-s)/P ------------------------(1)
N = Speed in rpm
f = Supply frequency
S = Motor slip
P = Motor poles

Torque
The Turning Force Applied to a
Shaft Tending to Cause Rotation

F
Force

Lever Arm Length

T=FxR

Motor Equations - Torque


Output torque of the motor is expressed by
the
following equation,
T=3VIcos mx974/N ----------------- (2)
T=Motor output Torque (Kg-m)
V=Line to Line voltage (kV)
I=Line Current (A)
cos=Power factor
m=Motor efficiency
N = Speed in RPM

AC Motor Horsepower

HP =
Where:

Torque x Speed
5252
.

Torque = Lb-Ft
Speed = RPM
5252
= constant

Frequency Converter &


Necessity

Frequency Converter

It is an electronic device that takes a fixed AC supply and converts


this
into a variable output voltage and frequency to control the speed
of a
motor.
The speed of the motor is dependent on the number of poles in
the motor
and the supplied frequency.

Necessity of Frequency Converter


Machine or Process Requirements
Energy Savings

Automated Factory Concept

Productivity Increases

Necessity of Frequency Converter

Improved Power Factor


Drive offers a fundamental Power Factor of near Unity at all Loads and
speeds.

Rectifiers

AC

DC
Rectifier

AC
Inverter

15

Un controlled Rectifiers

The mean value of the pulsating DC voltage is 1.35 mains voltage.

Controlled Rectifiers

The controlled rectifier supplies a DC voltage with a mean value of 1.35


mains voltage Cos Alpha.

Intermediate Circuit & D.C.Bus

Intermediate Circuit

Inverter

IGBT & IGBT Switching

Insulated-Gate-Bipolar (IGBT) is High- frequency transistor.

Dos & Donts

Earth screen/armour/conduit at both ends for


motor cables and

Dos for Inverters


control cables.
- Ensure EMC.

Rated current output of frequency converter


=>Motor current.
- Avoid overloading of the drive.
Select IP Class for drive based on Environment
conditions.
- Ensure the proper functionality of the drive in

Dos for Inverters


Correct protective earthing of the drive.
- Safety against high leakage current of drive.
Frequency converter must be installed vertically with minimum
distance over and below frequency converter.
- Effective air circulation & cooling of the converter.
Motor cables as short as possible.
-Lower rise time and peak voltage.
Separation of mains, control and motor cables.
- Avoid interference over coupling.
Braided screened/armoured motor and control cables.
- Minimum coverage of 80%.
- Optimise EMC immunity of the control cables.
- Optimise EMC emission from the motor cables.

Dos for Inverters

Regular checks on fluff entry in drives for textile applications.


- Cause rise in the temperature finally tripping the drive.
Ensure for the required volume and rate of air flow for drives
mounted
in an enclosure.
- Cause rise in the temperature finally tripping the drive.

Donts for Inverters


Output Power Factor Capacitors

The capacitors look like short circuit.


The drive will trip.
Does not change the drives input power factor
The drives input displacement power factor is high

Donts for Inverters


Input Power Factor Correction

The input displacement power factor of a drive is high.


Over-correcting displacement power factor is not good.
Power factor correction could cause resonance in the power system.

Donts for Inverters


Input Disconnect for Start-Stop

The drive already has a start/stop circuit


The drive cant interact with the control system
Moisture can condense on a cold drive.
Could over-heat the pre-charge circuit of the drive.

Donts for Inverters


Non-Interlocked Output Disconnect

Causes a large current draw if the drive is at full speed and the motor is
stopped.
May trip the drive.
Instead, interlock to the drive using a auxiliary contact to terminal 29
(coasting stop).

THANK YOU !