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Durability

DURABILITY
• It is an important property of concrete
because it indicates capability of concrete to
withstand the condition for which it has been
designed through out the life of the structure
• Lack of Durability



External agents – Environment
Internal agents – with in the concrete
Three main – physical, mechanical and chemical
Physical – frost, difference between thermal
properties of aggregate and cement paste
– Chemical – sulfates, acids, sea water, chlorides
and electrochemical corrosion of reinforcement
– Mechanical - Abrasion

k in m/sec or ft/sec . The property of interest in relation to water-tightness of liquidretaining structures • Measurement .describe test.Permeability • Permeability is the ease with which liquids or gases can travel through concrete.

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Same as against water permeability only the steady state is reached in hours . This test give information about very thin skin of the concrete • Permeability of concrete to air is of interest fot sewage tanks and gas purifiers. under a constant applied load and at a given temperature. after a given time. pressure vessels and nuclear reactor.Permeability • BS 1881-5-1970: rate of flow water into concrete per unit area.

Permeability • • • For normal weight concrete permeability depends on porosity of the cement paste but it is not simple relation because poresize distribution. hydration and permeability Affect of segmenting capillaries influence permeability therefore not a simple function of porosity . Like the porosity of cement gel is 28% but permeability is because of extremely fine texture of the gel and very small size of gel pores Discussion about w/c ratio.

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Permeability • Permeability is related to time. With lower w/c ratio it is possible For normal weight concrete to have low permeability the w/c should be less than 0.5 Curing cycle • • – – – – Moist curing Moist and drying curing Steam curing Long curing temperature cycles . For higher durability it is important to achieve low permeability as soon as possible.

Permeability • • Porosity of aggregate Low permeability – – – – Dense Low water cement ratio Well graded aggregate Low porosity of aggregate .

loss of strength and stiffness. .Sulfate Attack Sulfate-generated deteriorations in normal portlant cement concretes include expansion. cracking. and sometimes disintegration.

• The chemical phenomenon of ettringite formation as a result of reaction between sulfate water and hydration products of portland cement is complex phenomema of the physical manifestations of the sulfate attack. Furthermore. Gypsum forms calcium sulfoaluminate but at that concrete is fresh thus expansion is accommodated.• Gypsum is added to the cement clinker to prevent flash point (hydration of C3A). . ettringite which causes expansions in some cases is apparently responsible for high strength in other cases.

which are commonly present in ground water and soil gets access in hardened concrete in desired concentration reaction will start. Sulfur Trioxide (SO)3 1000 ppm moderate and . magnesium. and calcium. The solid salts do not react but in case of availability of water even the sulfates available as by product can react.Sulfate Attack • As calcium sulfoaluminate is formed in fresh concrete similar reaction can occur in hardened concrete. When sulfates of sodium.

Sulfate Attack • Magnesium sulfate has a more damaging effect because it leads to the decomposition of the hydrated calcium silicates as well as of Ca(OH)2 and of hydrated C3A. Calcium Sulfate is less soluble but in ground water other sulfates react • Sulfates in ground water occur naturally or come from industrial waste or fertilizers . It then forms magnesium silicate which has no binding properties.

Sulfate Attack • Ammonia sulfate attacks hydrated cement paste by producing gypsum .

Sulfate Attack • • • • • • C3A is attacked by sulfates Low C3A content Sulfate resistant cement Portland blast furnace cement Portland pozzolan cement Most Important – Dense concrete – Low permeability – Low water/cement ratio .

loss of volume. Sea shore aggregate more efflorescence . w/c ratio and form work.Sulfate Attack • Test by bar specimen in solution of sodium or magnesium sulfate and measure the loss in strength. Hot weather followed by cool and wet weather more efflorescence. disintegration • Alternate draying wetting can accelerate the process due to formation of crystals • Efflorescence due to compaction.

Sulfate Attack .

Sulfate Attack .