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Wireless Sensor

Networks for
Condition Monitoring in the
Railway Industry
MIDHUN
C.T
ROLL NO: 9
S4,MCA

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CONTENTS
 INTRODUCTION

 SENSOR DESIGN

 NETWORK DESIGN

 MONITORING SYSTEM

 CONCLUSION
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INTRODUCTION  RANGE OF SENSING TECHNOLOGY HAS EXPANDED RAPIDLY.SENSORS TO BE NEWTWORKED.  WSN?  WSNs CAN BE USED FOR MONITORING RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE . 3 .  NEW TECHNOLOGIES ALLOW VAST NUMBER OF DIST.  CONDITION MONITORING.

Fig. A TYPICAL WSN SETUP FOR RAILWAY CONDITION MONITORING 4 .

SENSOR DESIGN  THERE ARE MULTITUDE OF SENSORS TYPE USED IN RAILWAY CONDITION MONITORING.  SENSORS MUST RECEIVE POWER FROM EITHER BATTERIES OR LOCAL ENERGY GENERATION.  MEMS ARE SMALL INTEGRATED DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THAT COMBINE ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL COMPONENTS.  SENSORS CONVERTS A MEASURED MECHANICAL SIGNAL INTO AN ELECTRICAL SIGNAL.  MOST RAILWAY SENSORS FALL UNDER MEMS. 5 .

WHICH DESCRIBE THE AMBIENT RUNNING CONDITIONS.MEASUREMENT SENSORS:  SENSOR DEVICES MAY ALSO RETURN ADDITIONAL AMBIENT MEASUREMENTS SUCH AS TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY.CONTINUED…  A .  IT IS IMPORTANT TO TAKE THEM INTO ACCOUNT AND BUILD MODELS FOR CONDITION MONITORING THAT CONSIDER THESE AMBIENT CONDITIONS.  THESE EXTERNAL FACTORS ARE ENCAPSULATED BY CONTEXTUAL DATA. 6 .

 THE BOARDS COMPRISE ONE OR MORE WIRELESS SENSORS.CONTINUED…  B. SENOSR NODES :  SENSOR DEVICES ARE MOUNTED ON BOARDS. AND A POWER SOURCE. DATA STORAGE (MEMORY). 7 . A MICROCONTROLLER.  THE BOARDS FORM A PLATFORM COMBINING MOBILE COMPUTING AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATION WITH SENSOR DEVICES. TRANSCEIVER.

DIAGRAM OF COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL SENSOR NODE 8 .Fig.

SENSOR POWER:  SENSOR NODES OFTEN USE BATTERIES AS THEIR ENERGY SOURCE.  THE BATTERIES IN AN ACCELEROMETER MONITORING A TRAIN PANTOGRAPH ONLY LASTED 20 DAYS.5 YEARS FOR 4 AA BATTERIES BY ONLY WAKING THEIR SENSORS WHEN REQUIRED AND SLEEPING OTHERWISE. 9 .CONTINUED…  C.  ABLE TO EXTEND BATTERY LIFE TO 1.

CONTINUED…  AUTHORS HAVE CONSIDERED ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR NODES.  PIEZOELCTRIC MATERIALS CAN PRODUCE ELECTRICITY AS A RESPONSE TO MECHANICAL STRAIN SUCH AS THE STRAIN EXERTED ON THE TRACK.  OTHERS HAVE INVESTIGATED USING SOLAR ENERGY HARVESTING. 10 .  NUFFER AND BEIN INVESTIGATED AMBIENT ENENRGY HRAVESTING TECHNOLOGY FOR POWERING WSNs.

 THE SENSOR NODES USE SHORT-RANGE COMMUNICATION SUCH AS WI-FI OR BLUETOOTH TO TRANSMIT DATA TO THE BASE STATION. 11 .NETWORK DESIGN  A.  THE BASE STATION USES LONGRANGE COMMUNICATION SUCH AS GPRS OR SATELLITE TO TRANSMIT COLLATED DATA BACK TO A SERVER AT A CONTROL CENTER. BASE STATION:  THE BASE STATION CONTROLS THE SENSOR NODES AND ACTS AS A GATEWAY FOR DATA TRANSMISSION TO A REMOTE SERVER.

RELAY NODES:  SENSOR NODES ARE ENERGY-CONSTRAINED.  IF THEY CANNOT REACH THE BASE STATION.  RELAYS ENSURE CONNECTIVITY BY RELAYING THE DATA SIGNAL FROM THE SENSOR NODE TO THE BASE STATION VIA ONE OR MORE RELAY NODES USING WIRELESS MULTIHOP PATHS. THUS ONLY HAVING A SHORT TRANSMISSION RANGE. THEN HIGHER CAPABILITY RELAY NODES MAY BE USED. 12 .CONTINUED…  B.

NETWORK MODEL:  WSNs FOR RAILWAY APPLICATIONS FOLLOW THE OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION MODEL .CONTINUED…  C.  A TYPICAL WSN HAS FIVE LAYERS IN A PROTOCOL STACK WITH THREE PLANES .  PHYSICAL LAYER DEFINES HOW THE SENSORS TRANSMIT THEIR DATA TO THE NETWORK. 13 . TO TRANSMIT DATA FROM THE SENSOR NODES TO THE BASE STATION.

 THE TRANSPORT LAYER CONTROLS THE SENDING AND RECEIVING OF DATA.CONTINUED…  THE DATA LINK LAYER SPECIFIES THE NETWORK TOPOLOGY AND CONNECTS NODES TO EACH OTHER. 14 .  THE APPLICATION LAYER ALLOWS APPLICATION SOFTWARE TO ACCESS THE DATA.  THE NETWORK LAYER ROUTES THE DATA THROUGH THE NETWORK AS PACKETS.

 SENSOR NODES CAN BE ARRANGED IN EITHER AN AD HOC OR A PREPLANNED CONFIGURATION. SENSOR NODES ARE RANDOMLY PLACED IN THE MONITORED AREA. 2-D OR 3-D PLACEMENT . OPTIMAL PLACEMENT.  IN AD HOC ARRANGEMENT. 15 .SENSOR N/W TOPOLOGY(Data Linkage):  THE TOPOLOGY IS CONSTRAINED BY THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE MONITORING AND BY THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT. SENSOR NODES ARE ARRANGED IN EITHER A GRID.  IN PREPLANNED ARRANGEMENT.CONTINUED…  D.

AND MESH NETWORK TOPOLOGY (FROM LEFT TO RIGHT). 16 .DIAGRAM OF A STAR. TREE.

TREE. OR MESH TOPOLOGY AND TRANSMIT DATA TO THE BASE STATION 17 . THE SENSOR NODES ARE ARRANGED IN A STAR.IN A TYPICAL WSN.

AND THIS REQUIRES LONG-RANGE COMMUNICATION. 18 . COMMUNICATION MEDIUM:  THERE ARE MANY COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES USED IN WSNS IN RAILWAYS.  INTERSENSOR COMMUNICATIONS AND SENSOR TO BASE STATION TRANSMISSION ARE USUALLY SHORT RANGE.  THE BASE STATION TRANSMITS GATHERED DATA BACK TO THE CONTROL CENTER.CONTINUED…  E.

CONTINUED…  WSNS CAN USE TECHNOLOGIES BASED ON STANDARD MOBILE TELEPHONY (BLUETOOTH. WHEREAS WPANS AND WIMAX CAN CONNECT MANY DEVICES IN A MESH TOPOLOGY.  MOBILE TELEPHONY AND WIFI ARE PEER -TOPEER ONLY.WPANS OR WIMAX ENHANCES BY INCLUDING AUTHENTICATION. AND DATA ROUTING AND FORWARDING. GSM. 19 .  BROADBAND TECHNIQUES SUCH AS WI-FI . DATA ENCRYPTION FOR SECURITY. GPRS).

MONITORING SYSTEM  CONDITION MONITORING CAN BE PERFORMED CONTINUOUSLY OR PERIODICALLY.  CONTINUOUS MONITORING SHOULD DETECT A PROBLEM STRAIGHT AWAY BUT IT IS OFTEN EXPENSIVE.  IN BASIC CONDITION MONITORING.  PERIODIC MONITORING IS CHEAPER. USES LESS ENERGY. AND ALLOWS TIME FOR DATA CLEANING AND FILTERING. THE SYSTEM IS ONLY ABLE TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN NORMAL AND ABNORMAL CONDITIONS (NO FAULT OR FAULT). ENERGY HUNGRY. 20 .

CONTINUED…  CONDITION MONITORING CAN BE ANALYZED FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF FIXED AND MOVABLE MONITORING  FIXED MONITORING:  MANY AUTHORS HAVE INVESTIGATED HEALTH MONITORING OF INFRASTRUCTURE.  BRIDGES SUFFER STRUCTURAL DEFECTS EXACERBATED BYTHE CONSTANT STRAINS AND VIBRATIONS OF PASSING TRAINS. AND OTHER TRACK INFRASTRUCTURE. INCLUDING RAIL BRIDGES. TUNNELS. RAIL TRACKS AND TRACK BEDS. 21 .

 STRAIN GAUGES TO ANALYZE STATIC LOADS AND STRESSES 22 .CONTINUED…  HUMAN INSPECTION OF BRIDGES IS DIFFICULT AND MUCH OF THE STRUCTURE MAY BE INACCESSIBLE.  WSNS ENABLE CONSTANT MONITORING OF THE WHOLE STRUCTURE.  USED A VARIETY OF MEMS TO MONITOR STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN CONCRETE INCLUDING: PIEZO-BASED ACOUSTIC EMISSION (AE) SENSORS FOR CRACK AND FATIGUE DETECTION. INCLUDING THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE BRIDGE.

 MANY OF THESE SYSTEMS FORM A MOBILE NETWORK IN A DAISY CHAIN TOPOLOGY BETWEEN ADJACENT CARRIAGES AND WITH THE ENGINE ACTING AS THE BASE STATION. ALLOWING THE EARLY DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF PROBLEMS.  THE SENSOR NODES USED FOR MOVABLE MONITORING ARE OFTEN MOUNTED ON THE TRAIN BOGIES OR CARRIAGES.CONTINUED…  MOVABLE MONITORING:  WSNS PROVIDES A PROMISING PLATFORM FOR REAL-TIME MOVABLE CONDITION MONITORING OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS. 23 .

TUNNELS. IDENTIFICATION OF SENSOR NODE CONFIGURATIONS AND NETWORK TOPOLOGIES. TRACKS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT. AND MOVABLE MONITORING FOR24 VEHICLES AND THEIR MECHANICS. AND. PRINCIPALLY WHICH SENSORS DEVICES ARE USED AND WHAT THEY ARE USED FOR.CONCLUSION  HERE EMPHASIS IS ON THE PRACTICAL ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS.  THE WSN MUST BE RELIABLE AND ACCURATE TO ENABLE EFFECTIVE CONDITION MONITORING IN HARSH AND INACCESSIBLE ENVIRONMENTS BUT MUST ALSO BE COST EFFECTIVE. .  THE PAPER DIVIDES RAILWAY CONDITION MONITORING INTO FIXED MONITORING FOR IMMOBILE INFRASTRUCTURES SUCH AS BRIDGES.

Thank you………. 25 .

Query ??? 26 .