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COLLAGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Logic and
Computer Design
Course name:
Electrical
Fundamentals

Chapter
1 – Digital
measurement
& instrumentation
Course
code: ECEg4155
Computers
and Information
Course instructor: Getnet Z.
Contact information:
Kime & Thomas Kaminski
Email: Charles
abaye.get@gmail.com
Education, Inc.
Consultation
hours:
Wednesday:
are active3:00-5:00
in View Show mode)

OUT LINE
 Conversion Process
 DAC

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SIGNAL TYPES
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Analog Signals
 Any continuous signal that
a time varying variable of
the signal is a
representation of some
other time varying quantity
 Measures

one quantity in
terms of some other quantity
 Examples

Speedometer needle as function
of speed
 Radio volume as function of
knob movement

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SIGNAL TYPES

 Binary

Computers can only
perform processing on
digitized signals

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States
 On and of

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Digital Signals
 Consist of only two states

0

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ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERTER
An electronic integrated circuit which converts a
signal from analog (continuous) to digital
(discrete) form
 Provides a link between the analog world of
transducers and the digital world of signal
processing and data handling

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ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERTER
An electronic integrated circuit which converts a
signal from analog (continuous) to digital
(discrete) form
 Provides a link between the analog world of
transducers and the digital world of signal
processing and data handling

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t

ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERTER
An electronic integrated circuit which converts a
signal from analog (continuous) to digital
(discrete) form
 Provides a link between the analog world of
transducers and the digital world of signal
processing and data handling

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Two main steps of process
1.
Sampling and Holding
2.
Quantization and Encoding

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Analog-to-Digital Converter
Quantizing
and
Encoding
Sampling and
Hold
Input: Analog
Signal

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Sampling & Hold

 Ideally

twice as fast as what
we are sampling

Continuous Signal

Digital system works with
discrete states
 Taking

samples from each
location

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Measuring analog signals at
uniform time intervals

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Reflects sampled and hold
signal
 Digital

approximation

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Sampling & Hold
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Measuring analog signals at
uniform time intervals
 Ideally

twice as fast as what
we are sampling

Digital system works with
discrete states
 Taking

samples from each
location

Reflects sampled and hold
signal
 Digital

approximation

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Sampling & Hold
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Measuring analog signals at
uniform time intervals
 Ideally

twice as fast as what
we are sampling

Digital system works with
discrete states
 Taking

a sample from each
location

Reflects sampled and hold
signal
 Digital

approximation

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Sampling & Hold
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Measuring analog signals at
uniform time intervals
 Ideally

twice as fast as what
we are sampling

Digital system works with
discrete states
 Taking

samples from each
location

Reflects sampled and hold
signal
 Digital

approximation

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Encoding

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Quantizing
 Separating the input
signal into a discrete
states with K increments
 K=2N

Assigning a unique digital code to each state for
input into the microprocessor

N is the number of bits of

Analog quantization size
 Q=(Vmax-Vmin)/2N
Q

is the Resolution
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Quantization & Coding
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Use original analog signal

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Quantization & Coding
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Use original analog signal
 Apply 2 bit coding

1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0

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K=22
00
01
10
11
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Quantization & Coding
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Use original analog signal
 Apply 2 bit coding

1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0

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K=22
00
01
10
11
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Quantization & Coding
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Use original analog signal
 Apply 3 bit coding

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K=23
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

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Quantization & Coding
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Use original analog signal
 Apply 3 bit coding
 Better representation of
input information with
 MCS12 has max of 10 bits

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K=23
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

K=16
0000
.
.
.
1111

K=…

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The accuracy of an ADC can be improved by increasing:
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Sampling Rate, Ts
 Based on number of steps
required in the conversion
process
 Increases the maximum
frequency that can be
measured

t

Resolution, Q

Improves accuracy in measuring amplitude of
analog signal

Limited by the signal-to-noise ratio (~6dB)

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The accuracy of an ADC can be improved by increasing:
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Sampling Rate, Ts
 Based on number of steps
required in the conversion
process
 Increases the maximum
frequency that can be
measured

t

t

Resolution (bit depth), Q

Improves accuracy in measuring amplitude of
analog signal

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Aliasing (sampling)

when the input signal is changing much faster
than the sample rate
 Should follow the Nyquist Rule when sampling
Answers question of what sample rate is required
 Use a sampling frequency at least twice as high as the
maximum frequency in the signal to avoid aliasing
 f
sample>2*fsignal

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 Occurs

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Quantization Error (resolution)
 Optimize

resolution
 Dependent on ADC converter of microcontoller
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 Microphones
 Strain

Gages
 Thermocouple
 Digital Multimeters

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ADC are used virtually everywhere where an
analog signal has to be processed, stored, or
transported in digital form

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Successive Approximation A/D Converter
 Flash A/D Converter
 Dual Slope A/D Converter
 Delta-Sigma A/D Converter

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DAC = Digital to Analog Converter
EOC = End of Conversion
SAR = Successive Approximation Register
S/H = Sample and Hold Circuit
Vin = Input Voltage

Comparator

Vref = Reference Voltage

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Elements

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Uses an n-bit DAC and original analog results

Performs a binary comparison of VDAC and Vin

MSB is initialized at 1 for DAC

If Vin < VDAC (VREF / 2^n=1) then MSB is reset to 0

If Vin > VDAC (VREF / 2^n) Successive Bits set to 1 otherwise 0

Algorithm is repeated up to LSB

At end DAC in = ADC out

N-bit conversion requires N comparison cycles

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Algorithm

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Cycle 1 => MSB=1

Vin < VDAC

Voltage .5 .25 .125
SAR unchanged = 1 0 0 0 0

1

0

.0625 .03125

SAR bit3 reset to 0 = 1 0 0 0 0

SAR bit2 reset to 0 = 1 0 0 0 0

Cycle 4

SAR = 1 0 0 1 0
VDAC = .5+.0625=.5625 Vin > VDAC

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Cycle 3

SAR = 1 0 1 0 0
VDAC = .5 + .125 = .625

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Cycle 2

SAR = 1 1 0 0 0
VDAC = .5 +.25 = .75 Vin < VDAC

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SAR = 1 0 0 0 0
VDAC = Vref/2^1 = .5 Vin > VDAC

Bit

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DAC bit/voltage

Cycle 5

SAR unchanged = 1 0 0 1 0

SAR = 1 0 0 1 1
VDAC = .5+.0625+.03125= .59375
Vin > VDAC
SAR unchanged = 1 0 0 1 1

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reliable

successive approximation

Medium accuracy compared to

Higher resolution

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Capable of high speed and

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Speed limited to ~5Msps

cost

Capable of outputting the binary
number in serial (one bit at a
time) format.

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Encoder – Converts output of
comparators to binary
• Comparators

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Elements

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Algorithm

Resolution ;
 N= Encoder Output bits
 Comparators => 2N-1

Example: Vref8V, Encoder 3-bit

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Vin value lies between two comparators

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Resolution = 1.0V
Comparators 23-1=7

1 additional encoder bit -> 2 x #
Comparators
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0
0

Vcomp5 = Vref*5/8 = 5V

1
1

Vcomp6 = Vref*6/8 = 6V

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Vin lies in between Vcomp5 & Vcomp6

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Vin = 5.5V, Vref= 8V

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Comparator 1 - 5 => output 1
Comparator 6 - 7 => output 0

1
5.5V

Encoder Octal Input = sum(0011111) = 5

1

Encoder Binary Output = 1 0 1
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efficient in terms
of speed, very fast

limited only in terms of
comparator and gate
propagation delays

 Lower

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 Most

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 Simplest in terms of
operational theory

resolution
 Expensive
output bit, the number
of comparators is
doubled

i.e. for 8 bits, 256
comparators needed

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DUAL SLOPE A/D CONVERTER

Also known as an Integrating ADC
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+
_

Clock

Start

Control
Logic

Counter

Stop
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DUAL-SLOPE ADC – HOW IT WORKS

The input voltage is computed as a function of the reference
voltage, the constant run-up time period, and the measured rundown time period
The run-down time measurement is usually made in units of the
converter's clock, so longer integration times allow for
higher resolutions

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Then, a known reference voltage of opposite polarity is applied to
the integrator and is allowed to ramp until the integrator output
returns to zero (td)

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An unknown input voltage is applied to the input of the integrator
and allowed to ramp for a fixed time period (tu)

The speed of the converter can be improved by sacrificing
resolution

td
Vin  Vref
tu

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DUAL SLOPE A/D CONVERTER

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 Slow
 High precision
external components
required to achieve
accuracy

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 Input signal is
averaged
 Greater noise
immunity than other
 High accuracy

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DELTA-SIGMA A/D CONVERTER
Low-Pass
Filter

Digital
Outpu
t

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Delta-Sigma
Modulator

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Analog
Input

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DELTA-SIGMA ADC – HOW IT WORKS
Input over sampled, goes to integrator
 Integration compared with ground
 Iteration drives integration of error to zero
 Output is a stream of serial bits

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DELTA-SIGMA A/D CONVERTER

resolution

 Slow

due to
oversampling

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 High

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 No

precision external
components needed

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Dual Slope

Slow

Med

12-16

Flash

Very Fast

High

4-12

Successive
Approx

Medium –
Fast

Low

8-16

Sigma –
Delta

Slow

Low

12-24

(bits)

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(relative)

Resolution

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(relative)

Cost

Type

Speed

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DIGITAL-TOANALOG
CONVERSION
[DAC]

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG
CONVERSION
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Digital to Analog conversion involves
transforming the computer’s binary output in 0’s
and 1’s (1’s typically = 5.0 volts) into an analog
representation of the binary data
 When data is in binary form, the 0's and 1's may
be of several forms such as the TTL form where
the logic zero may be a value up to 0.8 volts and
the 1 may be a voltage from 2 to 5 volts.
 The data can be converted to clean digital form
using gates which are designed to be on or of
depending on the value of the incoming signal.

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DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG
CONVERSION
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Data in clean binary digital form can be
converted to an analog form by using a summing
amplifier.
 For example, a simple 4-bit D/A converter can be
made with a four-input summing amplifier.

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DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG
CONVERSION

Basic Approaches

Summing Amplifier
R-2R Network Approach

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Weighted

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2

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WEIGHTED SUM DAC
One way to achieve D/A conversion is to use a
summing amplifier.
 Consider the following 8-bit DAC

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WEIGHTED SUM DAC

E.g: consider the following 4-bit WSDAC
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WEIGHTED SUM DAC
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This approach is not satisfactory for a large
number of bits because it requires too much
precision in the summing resistors.
 This problem is overcome in the R-2R network
DAC.

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summing amplifier with the R-2R ladder
of resistances shown produces the output
where the D's take the value 0 or 1.
 The digital inputs could be TTL voltages
which close the switches on a logical 1 and
leave it grounded for a logical 0.
 This is illustrated for 4 bits, but can be
extended to any number with just the
resistance values R and 2R.

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 The

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u
o
y
k
n
a
h
T

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Q?

QUIZ
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1 write what you understand from today's class.
 2 diferentiate between ADC and DAC by giving
example for the respective converters.

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