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Frequency Response Analysis on

Transformer Windings

M. BAKRUTHEEN, M.E.,
A S S I S TAN T P R O F E S S O R ,
D E PARTM E N T O F E L E C T R I C A L AN D E L E C T R O N I C S E N G I N E E R I N G ,
N ATI O N A L E N G I N E E R I N G C O L L E G E ,
K O V I L P ATT I - 6 2 8 5 0 3

Outline
 Introduction and basics of FRA
 Measurement of Frequency Response
 Innovative applications of FRA data - A Novel Generalized
Framework to Diagnose Winding Displacements
 Summary

Condition Monitoring and Diagnostics



Triggered by structural changes in the electric energy
sector
Deregulation or Privatization
Power/Energy is a marketable quantity
Maintenance philosophy


Time-Based

Condition-Based

CMD- a necessity to manage assets, operate efficiently,
and avoid failures.

Monitoring ~ Diagnosis

Monitoring
Data acquisition and Noise suppression
Desirable

qualities: On-line, On-site, Non- destructive,
Non-invasive

Diagnosis
Interpretation of monitored data

Recommend

preventive action

Benefits of Condition Monitoring  Detect nascent/incipient faults  Track fault evolution  Valuable feedback to designer  Reduced unplanned outages  Extend service-life .

CMD methods (for Transformers) Insulation system  Dissolved gas analysis  Partial Discharge  Top oil temperature  Degree of polymerization  Furan analysis  Insulation resistance  Capacitance and tan  Winding and Core  Reactance  Low voltage impulse  Transfer function  FRA/SFRA .

non-intrusive and non-destructive tool  Customized FRA instrument sold .About FRA  Sensitive to winding movement and change in geometry  L & C distribution gets altered  FR mismatch implies mechanical fault  Is an off-line. on-site.

Customized FRA instrument .

Measurement setup .

FR measurement: Principle  Apply a spectrally pure sinusoid (f1)  Measure i/p. compute Gain. off-line measurement . o/p. Phase  Repeat measurement at next discrete f2  Direct measurement in frequency-domain  Low voltage.

Sensitivity . bushing capacitance Repeatability. SNR. A problem particularly for on-site tests Unshielded Cable connecting lead.issues length.Practical difficulties Ensuring Source spectral purity of source harmonics must be low Excitation level low.

FRA Interpretation – Current Practice FR Analysis Zones Core and Magnetic Circuit (Low Freq) •Freq < 10 kHz Winding Geometry (Mid Freq) •10 kHz < Freq < 600-800 kHz Inter .Connections and Test System (High Freq) •Freq > 1MHz .

On – Site Measurement .

a “MUST” .set to operate in `Envelope Acquisition' mode • Synchronous triggering of AWG and DSO .operated in ‘Linear-Sweep' mode • A Digital Oscilloscope (DSO) .Method Developed at IISc lab… • An Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG) .

Connections .

Underlying principle… Comparison of data acquisition in “Normal” and “Envelope” mode for (a) Sinusoidal input (b) Amplitude modulated input .

Experimental results Transfer function of Transformer Model Coil (a) Proposed method. sweep (b) Manual sweep .

Test setup – Actual Transformer .

6.9 kV/11 kV transformer (a) Manual sweep (b) Proposed method with sweep .Results Amplitude frequency response of 315 kVA.

Application  Mechanical Damage in Transformer Windings  Where is it located?  How Severe is it? .

Typical Failures: Extreme Examples .

Typical Failures: Extreme Examples .

Typical Failures: Extreme Examples .

Typical Failures: Extreme Examples .

No generic method to locate true mechanical damage in an actual transformer winding based on measured FRA data . No closed-form expression to link damage location and its severity to observed deviation in FRA data 2.Ground Truth 1.

Nominal Winding .

Incipient Radial Displacement .

FRA comparison: Healthy vs Faulty .

is it POSSIBLE to work BACKWARDS to Locate a minor winding damage and assess its severity?? .The BIG QUESTION??? Given Healthy and Faulty FRA data.

Ladder Network Model Used Each circuit element is DISTINCT .

Peaks are the OCNFs. Troughs are the SCNFs .Choice of Network Function  For an LTI system.

for the first time. a generalized expression connecting SCNFs and the parameters of a completely inhomogeneous ladder network having an arbitrary number of sections has been derived. .Analytical Expression Therefore.

Salient Features of the Expression  Connects SCNFs & ladder network elements Valid for uniform. so is a indicator of severity (qualitatively) Ψscnf contribution of lower frequency SCNFs are more compared to the higher frequency Cg element contribution depends on its position  This property is crucial in localization      . non uniform & damaged winding Contributions of Cg and Cs are decoupled Ψscnf proportional to amount of change.

viz..Radial Displacement in Actual wdg RD causes significant change in Cg alone  The rest of distributions remain more or less unaffected  Minor/incipient RD can be modeled as a change in Cg alone.  .

Implementation steps .

Experiments on an Actual Winding Requirements Measure SCNFs before and after RD  Measure Cg before and after RD  Variation of M vs x 0x  Procedure .

Experimental setup .

M0x versus x .

Nominal Winding .

pair .Radial Displacement: 11th disk .

FRA before Radial Displacement .

FRA after Radial Displacement .

Sample calculations .

CASE – A: RD of 1 disk-pair at different positions .

Nominal Winding .

CASE B: RD involving 2 disk-pairs .

.

Summary A simple way to acquire FRA data discussed FR does contain hidden information Innovative methods needed to harness it One of the novel applications of FR data presented Fault diagnosis is a complex & challenging task .