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Marketing Management, 12/e

A South Asian Perspective
11
Crafting the Brand
Positioning

Kotler

Koshy

Keller

Jha

Chapter Questions
How can a firm choose and communicate
an effective positioning in the market?
 How are brands differentiated?
 What marketing strategies are appropriate
at each stage of the product life cycle?
 What are the implications of market
evolution for marketing strategies?

11-2

Marketing Strategy Segmentation  Targeting  Positioning  11-3 .

Positioning Act of designing the company’s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market. 11-4 .

Value Propositions  Scorpio. delivered to your door within 30 minutes of ordering. at a moderate price 11-5 . Mahindra & Mahindra  Luxury  of a Car and thrill of an SUV Domino’s  A good hot pizza.

Writing a Positioning Statement Mountain Dew: To young. 11-6 . active soft-drink consumers who have little time for sleep. Mountain Dew is the soft drink that gives you more energy than any other brand because it has the highest level of caffeine.

Defining Associations Points-of-difference (PODs)  Attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand. and believe they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand Points-of-parity (POPs)  Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands 11-7 . positively evaluate.

Conveying Category Membership Announcing category benefits  Comparing to exemplars  Relying on the product descriptor  11-8 .

Consumer Desirability Criteria for PODs Relevance  Distinctiveness  Believability  11-9 .

Deliverability Criteria for PODs Feasibility  Communicability  Sustainability  11-10 .

High quality Taste vs.Examples of Negatively Correlated Attributes and Benefits     Low-price vs. Good tasting Efficacious vs. Refined Ubiquitous vs. Low calories Nutritious vs. Safe Strong vs. Mild     Powerful vs. Exclusive Varied vs. Simple 11-11 .

Addressing Negatively Correlated PODs and POPs    Present separately Leverage equity of another entity Redefine the relationship 11-12 .

Differentiation Strategies Product  Personnel  Channel  Image  11-13 .

Product Differentiation        Product form Features Performance Conformance Durability Reliability Reparability         Style Design Ordering ease Delivery Installation Customer training Customer consulting Maintenance 11-14 .

Identity and Image Identity: The way a company aims to identify or position itself Image: The way the public perceives the company or its products 11-15 .

Product Life Cycle Introduction  Growth  Maturity  Decline  11-16 .

and human resource strategies in each stage.  Products require different marketing.Facts about Life Cycles Products have a limited life.  Profits rise and fall at different stages. manufacturing.  Product sales pass through distinct stages.  11-17 . financial. purchasing.

Marketing Program Modifications Prices  Distribution  Advertising  Sales promotion  Services  11-18 .

Market Evolution Stages Emergence  Growth  Maturity  Decline  11-19 .

Emerging Markets Latent  Single-niche  Multiple-niche  Mass-market  11-20 .