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• L ight
• A mplification

S timulated

E mission



R adiation

Properties of laser .

Monochromatic .

Directionality .

Coherence .

Many wavelengths 1. Coherent . Directional 3. Monochromatic 2.Incandescent vs. Laser Light 1. Incoherent 3. Multidirectional 2.


Stimulated Absorption • Energy is absorbed by an atom. . the electrons are excited into vacant energy shells.

Absorption E1 E2 .

Spontaneous Emission • The atom decays from level 2 to level 1 through the emission of a photon with the energy hv. It is a completely random process. .

Spontaneous Emission .

Stimulated Emission atoms in an upper energy level can be triggered or stimulated in phase by an incoming photon of a specific energy. .

Stimulated Emission .

Stimulated Emission The stimulated photons have unique properties: – In phase with the incident photon – Same wavelength as the incident photon – Travel in same direction as incident photon .

Electron/Photon Interactions .

. And when these atoms come back to the original ground level it emits laser beam. Atom reaches the meta stable state (after first stimulated emission) can remain there for longer time period.WHY WE NEED META STABLE STATE? ANSWER IS With having the metastable state above the ground level. So the number of atom increases in the meta stable state.

POPULATION INVERSION • A state of a medium where a higher-lying electronic level has a higher population than a lower-lying level .

Optical pumping 2. X-ray pumping 4. Electrical pumping 3. • TYPES OF PUMPING : 1. Chemical pumping .PUMPING • The method particle of raising a particle from lower energy state to higher energy state is called pumping.

a resonator . referred to as "pump" energy • An optical path which allows emitted photons to oscillate and interfere constructively as energy is added or "pumped" into the system. ie.LASER COMPONENTS All lasers have 3 essential components: • A lasing or "gain" medium • A source of energy to excite electrons in the gain medium to high energy states.



Einstein’s Coefficients
Einstein gives a probability that stimulated
emission is same as absorption.

Means that if a stimulated absorption can
occur then there is same probability that
stimulated emission can occur.

dN  0 dt .Equilibrium condition In case of energy states the number of electron absorbed and emitted should be equal or the rate of change of numbers of atoms in two states should be equal.

Planck’s Radiation Law 8h E    3 c 3 1 e h kT 1 Plank’s gives the formula that how a gas radiate energy. .


Spontaneous emission A21 :.correspond to spontaneous emission probability per unit time This particular emission can occur without the presence of external field E(v) .

correspond to stimulated absorption probability per unit time This type of absorption can occur in presence of external field E(v) only .Stimulated Absorption B12 :.

Stimulated Emission B21 :.correspond to stimulated emission probability per unit time This type of emission can occur in presence of external field E(v) only .

Total Emission Probability Spontaneous Emission + Stimulated Emission A21 + B21 E(v)  A21  B21E    N 2 Number of atoms that can jump from level E2 to E1 is .

Total Absorption Probability  B12 E    N1 .

The rate of change of atoms in E2 It can be given by differentiation dN 2  Absorption  emission dt (probability) or dN 2   B12 E   N1    A21  B21E    N 2 dt .

At Equilibrium dN 2 0 dt Then B12 E   N1   A21  B 21E    N 2 .

Emission and absorption are same A21 1 E    B21  N1  B12        1  N  B    2  21   .

Maxwell Bolzman Distribution In thermal equilibrium N1  N 0e  E1 KT N 2  N 0e  E2 KT .

So the equations become N1  e N2 h kT So equation becomes A21 E    B21 h kT e    1 B12    1 B21  .

After comparing with Planks Radiation Law A21 8h 3  c3 B21 And B12 1 B21 Units of Einstein coefficient: JoulesSec/m3 .

Conclusions • Stimulated emission have same probability as stimulated absorption • Ratio between spontaneous and stimulated emission varies with v3 • All we need is to calculate one of the probability to find others. .

chemical 3.Crystal Lasers 3. 4-level laser e.Gas Lasers 2.Visible Region 2.Liquid Lasers b.Pulsed Laser c. 2-level laser 2.Semiconductors Lasers 4. electrical .Microwave Region •X-Ray Region d. optical 2.According to their wavelength: 1. 3-level laser 3.Continuous Wave 2.According to their sources: 1.Ultraviolet Region 4. According to different levels 1.Infrared Region 3.Types of Laser   a. electric discharge 4. According to mode of pumping 1.According to the nature of emission: 1.

Level Laser E2 h Absorption h E1 Spontaneous    Emission h h Stimulated Emission E2 E1 h E2 E1 .2.

E2 E1 E2 – E1 META STABLE STATE E1 – E0 E0 .THREE STEP LASER • Stimulated absorption • Spontaneous emission to the meta stable state • Stimulated emission from meta stable state to ground state.

4-Level LASER .


RUBY LASER Construction .

ENERGY LEVEL IN RUBY LASER Al2O3 4T 1 Cr+ Energy 2T 2 rapid decay 4T 2 2 LASING 4 A2 E .


HE-NE LASER Construction .

.  Energy Level Diagram of He-Ne .

Combined Laser Action .

Emission wavelengths of common lasers .

064μm is emitted Characteristics Type : Doped Insulator Laser Active Medium : Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Active Centre : Neodymium Pumping Method : Optical Pumping Pumping Source : Xenon Flash Pump Optical Resonator : Ends of rods silver coated Two mirrors partially and totally reflecting Power Output : 20 kWatts Nature of Output : Pulsed Wavelength Emitted : 1. During the transition from the metastable state to E1. The Nd ion has many energy levels and due to optical pumping these ions are raised to excited levels. the laser beam of wavelength 1.Nd (Neodymium) – YAG (Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) LASER Principle Doped Insulator laser refers to yttrium aluminium garnet doped with neodymium.064 μm .

Nd (Neodymium) – YAG (Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) LASER M1– 100%  reflector mirror M2 – partial  reflector mirror Laser Rod Flash Tube Capacitor Resistor Power Supply .

 E3 – Energy levels of Nd E4 – Meta Stable State E0 – ground State Energy Level Applications Transmission of signals over large distances Long haul communication system Endoscopic applications Remaote sensing .Energy Level Diagram of Nd– YAG LASER E3 Non radiative decay E2 E4 Laser 1. E2.064μm E1 Non radiative decay Nd E0 E1.

 Kasap.O.Current Cleaved surface mirror L p+ GaAs Electrode L n+ GaAs Electrode Active region (stimulated emission region) A schematic illustration of a GaAs homojunction laser diode. The cleaved surfaces act as reflecting mirrors. © 1999 S. Optoelectronics  (Prentice Hall) .

• Current through the junction and the electron supply are directly proportional. .Laser Diodes • Lasing occurs when the supply of free electrons exceeds the losses in the cavity. must be I TH action occurs. exceeded before laser • .

 Energy levels up to the the fermi level are occupied by electrons. Degenerate doping. E FP  E FN .  When there is no applied voltage the fermi level is continuous across the diode ( ) .Laser Diode Action (intrinsics) Refer to diagram of degenerately doped direct bandgap semiconductor pn junction.where fermi level ) on PEFP is ( EFN band (VB)and side is in the valence on the Nside is in the conduction band (CB).

 Kasap.p+ Junction n+ Ec Eg Ev EF p eV o H o les   in  V B Electro ns El ectro ns   i n  C B Ec Eg EF n Ec n+ p+ In v ers i o n reg i o n EF n Ec eV EF p (a) Ev (b) V The energy band diagram of a degenerately doped p­n  with no bias. (b) Band diagram with a sufficiently large forward bias to cause population inversion and hence stimulated emission. Optoelectronics  (Prentice Hall) .O. © 1999 S.

 Vapp diminishes barrier potential to 0 allowing electrons to flow into SCL and over to p+-side to establish diode current.  Vo (built in voltage) prevents electrons in CB (n+side) from diffusing into CB of p+-side.  There is a similar barrier preventing hole diffusion from p+ to n+ sides. .Laser Diode (intrinsics)  Space charge layer (SCL) is very narrow.  Assuming an applied voltage (Vapp) greater than E FN andenergy. EFP the bandgap are now separated by Vapp.

E FN  EFP  eVapp  Eg .  Result  SCL no longer depleted.Laser Diodes (intrinsics)  A similar reduction in barrier potential for holes from p+-side to n+-side occurs.

.  The region where the population inversion occurs develops a layer along the junction called an inversion layer or active region.Laser Diode (Population Inversion) Refer to Density of States.  This is the result of a Population Inversion in energies near EC and EV.  More electrons in the CB at energies near Ec than electrons in VB near Ev.

E to E The photon can cause an electron to fall down from . The incoming photon is stimulating direct recombination.Laser Diode (stimulated emission) E  E of An incoming photon with energy will not E toto E excite from see electrons due to theE absence of electrons at . C V V C V C V .

FN FP . Summary:  EFP < (Vapp ) *Photons with energy > EgEFNbut cause stimulated emission. E  E (Vapp ) *Photons with energy > are absorbed.  Optical gain depends upon the photon energy and thus wavelength .Laser Diode (stimulated emission)  The region where there is more stimulated emission than absorption results in Optical gain.

C V . What is the pumping mechanism used to achieve this? Forward current density above a threshold value The process is called injection pumping.Laser Diode (pumping) An adequate forward bias is required to develop injection carriers across a junction to initiate a E population inversion between energies at and E energies at .


(optical resonator)  Provides an output of continuous coherent radiation.  An optical cavity is implemented to elevate the intensity of stimulated emission. GaAs) See slide 3.Laser Diode (optical cavity) In addition to population inversion laser oscillation must be sustained. .  A homojunction laser diode is one where the pn junction uses the same direct bandgap semiconductor material throughout the component (ex.

 The of radiation that escalates in the cavity is dependant on the length L of the cavity. m   L where : m is an integer (mode or resonant frequency) 2n n is the refractive index of the semiconductor  is the free space wavelength .(resonant  length)  Only multiples of ½ exist.  Photons reflected from cleaved surface stimulate more photons of the same frequency.Laser Diode (optical cavity) The ends of the crystal are cleaved to a flatness and the ends polished to provide reflection.


• Holograms • Satellites Military • Weapons • Radar 01/02/17 Industry .Not to be Taken Lightly The Weighty Implications of Laser Technology Medical • Optical Surgery • General Surgery • Tattoo removal Entertainment Applications of Laser Technology • CD Players • DVD Players • Video Game Systems Telecommunications • Information tech.

and scanners CD-Audio is read by a laser 01/02/17 Laser pointers can enhance presentations DVD players read DVD’s using lasers Bar codes in grocery stores are scanned by lasers Video game systems such as PlayStation 2 utilize lasers . is used in printers. copiers.Can You See the Light? Military and Space aircraft are equipped with laser guns Airplanes are equipped with laser radar Bad eyesight can be corrected by optical surgery using lasers Cd-Rom discs are read by lasers Dentists use laser drills Tattoo removal is done using lasers Laser tech.