LECTURE DURING THE

RESEARCH SEMINAR
DR. VIVINA E. VILLANUEVA
Executive Assistant to the President &
Research Consultant
Held at Audio-Visual Room, NPCMST, Lingsat, San
Fernando City, La Union on December 3, 2016

Part I.

IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS
IN THE CONDUCT OF
RESEARCHES

Marks of a Good and Strong
Faculty lie on:
Number of researches conducted
Quality of researches conducted
Number of researches published

Research as one of the Major Functions of HEIs Generate knowledge Discover and investigate new or alternative researches and Improve the ways of life. .

to look for again. analyze and scrutinize Research literally means. probe. to investigate and study again . study. inquire. investigate.What is Research? “re”-again “search”. to explore anew. experiment. explore. discover. examine.“to look for”.

. To get a basic idea about the things we will need about the projects. relatives and loved ones. friends.& governance.business. World of work. health.Why Do We Research? There is so much to be improved: In our college At home In the community In our relationships with family. educational service.

.Why Do We Research? To substantiate the need to expand business. & Only through research can new inventions and discoveries come into life. Demand for change in producing changes to life and improving the quality of life.

What is a Problem? Anything which disturbs. & Difficulties that need to be eliminated. They could be a state of affairs that need to be stopped. Anything that is not working as expected. Condition that needs improvement. gives a feeling of discomfort and which gives us worries. .

about factors that explain the presence or occurrence of a phenomenon. . & Questions about characteristics of persons. Information gaps one wishes to fill.What is a Problem? Questions that need to be answered. An issue that should be settled . Theories one wants to validate.

Research Process RESEARCH New knowledge New Technology New skills/ behavior New Tools/ Devices/ Approaches Improved Conditions /Welfare .

Characteristics of Good Researches Relevant Feasible Clear Ethical Logical .

Characteristics of Good Researches Valid Cyclical Analytical Critical and Methodical. .

Characteristics of Good Researchers Scientific skills Intellectual curiosity and creativity Healthy criticism Intellectual honesty Research-oriented Efficiency/Effectiveness .

Characteristics of Good Researchers Prudence Active in Data Gathering Resourcefulness Economical Religious/God-fearing and Ethical. .

.Ingredients for a Successful Research One’s good attitude toward research How he deals with research problems and Influenced by performance and feedback.

IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH .Part II.

or operation before you begin working on it. . Creativity about other issues. study. and New discoveries brought about after the research.Benefits Derived from Research Research-based teaching provides you with the necessary information in your field of work.

.Factors that Influence Research Experience Among Faculty in NPCMST Funding support Availability of research adviser Knowledge of research methods discussed School’s policy and support to research & Attitude towards conducting research.

TYPES OF RESEARCH .Part III.

The data gathered are not based on intuition or gut feelings but rather on actual observation based on measurable facts and a large amount of data that can easily be organized. Effectivity of antibiotics depends so much on the number of bacteria it can kill . analyzed and interpreted Ex.Quantitative Research This is more on the “HOW” Allaga and Gunderson(2008) It is essentially about collecting numerical data to explain a particular phenomenon.

.Kinds of Quantitative Researches Descriptive method Correlational study A combination of descriptive and correlational Experimental method Market research Feasibility study Developmental and Action.

e univariate analysis) .Descriptive Method It describes the phenomena being studied It addresses the “what” question Descriptive statistics are used to analyze data gathered Considers one variable at a time (i.

.Descriptive Method The entry-level type of research in a new area of inquiry Describes what appears to be happening and what the important variables seem to be.

Descriptive Method Examples: Which is a better teaching strategy? Case study method? Or Demonstration method?  If salaries and benefits contribute to job satisfaction? If the marketing strategies of schools contribute to the increase in the number of enrollees If smoking affects the level of anxiety SWOT of certain universities Tracer study of graduates. .

& Correlation has been identified and relations among those variables are investigated.Correlational Research It focuses on the systematic investigation of relationships between or among two or more variables. Data are gathered from multiple variables and correlational analysis is used. .

Correlational Research Examples: The correlation between the academic performance of students based on selected variables to their licensure examination results The relationship between the profile of the respondents to their academic performance in college Relationship between the level of efficiency of the graduating students to their job employment. .

& Variables such as an intervention group vs. Ba . Attempts to establish cause and effect relationship with the alleged cause manipulated. a control group and then observe the impact of that manipulation on one or more dependent or outcome variables.Experimental Method Researcher manipulates one or more independent variable or groupings.

experimental studies are those in which strong causal inferences are most likely to be drawn.Experimental Method The cause which is manipulated is called Treatment-Independent variable The basic question to be posed in experimental research concerns what extent a particular intervention causes a particular outcome. quasi and true experiments. Ba . field. Laboratory. Thus.

If turmeric ginger has a curative effect to pimples. If garlic has a better antibiotic than penicillin.Experimental Method Examples: If “makahiya” leaf has an antibiotic effect or none. Ba . and Determine the safety of street foods.

. market size and competition. the market need. Ex. Putting –up a Food House and a onestop house near a college/ university where there are captured buyers.Market Research Any organized effort to gather information about target markets or customers. Market research provides important information to identify and analyze customer satisfaction.

Ex. which includes social and opinion research.where and howdo they buy? . is the systematic gathering and interpretation of information about individuals or organizations using statistical and analytical methods and techniques of the applied Social sciences to gain insight or support decision –making.Market Research Market research. Who will be the buyers? The users? The uses of the products.

economic.Feasibility Study It is undertaken to establish the viability of product. taking into account legal. environmental. service or any business undertaking before it is launched It is an analysis of the ability to complete a project successfully. social impact and other factors. social soundness. scheduling. Consider the product & market aspects before investing too much efforts & finances. technical. . marketing.Ex.

Feasibility Study A feasibility study allows project managers to investigate the possible negative and positive outcomes of a project before investing too much time and money .

Feasibility Study of a Restaurant Project at the Frontage of NPCMST Building. . Biday.Feasibility Study Examples: Infrastructure Building Annex or Extension for NPCMST Curricular Offerings Expansion in Brgy. A Gasoline Station Project at NPCMST Handled and Managed by Faculty and Staff.

. The study focuses on the effects of music in regulating anxiety of patients before a breast surgery.Developmental Investigates patterns and sequence of growth as a function of time Ex.

Consider people who are experiencing discomforts due to fractured hips (Qualitative) ( Quantitative research would deal with the level of discomforts that these people are experiencing or the level of dissatisfaction or satisfaction of their work. Ex. .Action Develops new skills or new approaches to solve problems.

answering questions of meaning. why do individuals react. but is a way of recording people’s attitudes.Qualitative Research This is more on the “WHY” Qualitative Research does not simply count things. . feelings and behaviors in greater depth This method allows for much more detailed investigation of issues--. what factors are involved. who is affected (by the issue) why. or respond differently from each other.

is more concerned with transferability as a way of validating findings and Qualitative research occurs in natural setting where human behavior and events happen and based on assumptions.Qualitative Research Qualitative research seeks to deal with human experience. and as such. .

Research projects using qualitative measures have smaller sample sizes than quantitative studies. .Qualitative Research Data are particularly useful when you wish to find out why people engage in such behavior and are descriptive in nature. The core of qualitative analysis is interpretation.

Types of Qualitative Research Phenomenological Ethnographic Case study Biographical Grounded theory Historical research Action research .

The question in phenomenology is: What is the meaning. structure and essence of the lived experiences of this phenomenon? .Phenomenological These are studies how individuals experience a phenomenon.

Phenomenological Examples: What is the essence of people’s experiences when they found out their loved one has a terminal cancer? What coping mechanisms do patients employ before a major surgery? What is the essence of student’s experiences on uncaring teachers? .

(How do the children describe the levels of pain they experienced while undergoing intravenous injection while their mother was with them and their mother was not with them? .Phenomenological Examples:  A Phenomenological Study of the Levels of Pain Experienced by Children Aged 3-5 Years Undergoing an Intravenous Injection in the Presence of their Mothers.

. And originates in the discipline of anthropology. The final report should provide a rich and holistic description of the culture of the group under study.Ethnographic This is the discovery and description of the culture of a group of people.

Ethnographic Examples: The Aetas ‘Way of Life Philippines’Tourism Spots and their Influences to a Brighter Life The Training of Aeta Teachers from Zambales for the past 10 years into the formulation of a Teacher Education Model .

It applies to anthropology. process) because it explains the case  It is an in depth examination of people or groups of people. law. observations.g. sociology. documents. medicine. a person. etc.Case Study A case is a bounded system (e. group. and questionnaires . Multiple methods of data collection may be interviews. activity.

Case Study Example: A Case History of a Mental Retarded College Student at NPCMST. causes and effects to her studies A Case Study on the Prospects of Offering Graduate School at the NPCMST: Requirements. Governance and Management . his family background.

usually by an in-depth unstructured interview. . & It is the life history of a person. A collection and analysis of an intensive account of a whole life or portion of a life.Biographical Study It is an exhaustive account of life experiences.

Marcos The Biographical Sketch of the newly elected President Rodrigo Duterte Your Own Biographical Sketch.Biographical Study Examples: The Life History of the former President Ferdinand E. .

“constructs and concepts are grounded in the data and hypotheses are tested as they arise from the research” . Grounded theory method uses both an inductive and a deductive approach to theory development.Grounded Theory These are studies in which data are collected and analyzed and then a theory is developed that is grounded in the data. According to Field and Morse (1985).

Grounded Theory Data are gathered in naturalistic settings (field settings). The grounded theory approach presumes it is possible to discover fundamental patterns in all social life (called basic social processes). Data collection and data analysis occur simultaneously. and data are recorded through handwritten notes and tape recordings. Data collection primarily consists of participant observation and interviews. .

. The theory that is generated is self-correcting. which means that as data are gathered. adjustments are made to the theory to allow for the interpretation of new data that are obtained.Grounded Theory Grounded theory is more concerned with the generation rather than the testing of hypotheses.

Historical Research It concerns the identification. . The data for historical research are usually found in documents or in relics and artifacts. evaluation. and synthesis of data from the past. location. Documents may include a wide range of printed material. Relics and artifacts are items of physical evidence. It seeks not only to discover the events of the past but to relate these past happenings to the present and to the future.

.Historical Research The sources of historical data are frequently referred to as primary and secondary sources. Primary sources are those that provide firsthand information or direct evidence. The data for historical research should be subjected to two types of evaluation. Secondary sources are secondhand information (or sometimes third or fourth hand).

Historical Research External criticism It is concerned with the authenticity or genuineness of the data and should be considered first Establishes the validity of the data Internal criticism It examines the accuracy of the data and is considered after the data are considered to be genuine Establishes the reliability of the data .

Historical Research Examples:  If Mother tongue will work best in teaching Grades 1-3 as an approach  The historical background of the City of San Fernando: Its impact to the life students in the city .

as is the case in quantitative research studies.Action Research Qualitative research that seeks action to improve practice and study the effects of the action that was taken (Streubert & Carpenter. . In action research. 202) There is no goal of trying to generalize the findings of the study. the implementation of solutions occurs as an actual part of the research process.

others opt for qualitative research methods.Qualitative Researches Across The Different Fields of Inquiry Common belief in understanding human action is through systematic study and analysis. The use of quantitative research approaches. and some use a combination on of both .

How to choose/formulate titles. objectives and problems .Part IV.

…On Titles You may choose your title depending on your: Preferences and interests Abilities and intellectual capability Qualifications Suitability of your particular approaches to your topic .

…On Titles The need of our institution as mandated by CHED or MARINA Financial capability Availability of books and references and Administrative support .

assessment on and evaluation on .…On Titles It should reflect the problem. contents and variables of the study It must inform adequately with the least possible words. Titles should not be more than 14 words. Avoid such unnecessary words as studies on. investigation on.

…On Statement of the Problem and Objectives The most important part of a proposal from where all the other parts emanate The research problem can be either in a statement or question form The objectives are the particulars or details of the problem .

There are 2 types of objectives: General and Specific .…On Statement of the Problem and Objectives The statements of what researchers want to find out The objectives must be within the scope of the problem and must be stated in declarative form.

Aims of Research Objectives
Criteria to measure/ outcome of study are

established
Relevant variable to be studied are
indicated
Choice of research design to be used are
guided
Pointers on data collection are provided
Tool for research analysis are determined

Criteria of a Good Research
Problem
Researchable-able to answer question and

solve problem
Sustains the interest of researcher
Within the research capabilities(needed skills,
resources)
Manageable in scope and depth
Has the potentials to contribute something
new
Be significant/important

Characteristics of Research
Objectives

SMART

PA

Specific Clearly specify the variable to be studied or measured M.Measurable Outcomes of the study need to be quantifiable .Characteristics of Research Objectives S.

Result. effort and resources R.oriented Yield results either in conformity or non conformity of the hypothesis .Attainable Results of the study should be known within the researcher’s time.Characteristics of Research Objectives A.

Adequate Objective should help researcher to accomplish the objective/goal of the research project .Precise The visibility and clarity of the expected outcomes or results are observable A.Characteristics of Research Objectives T.Time Bound Done within a certain length of time P.

. Transform problem statement from an interrogative to a declarative form by using the gerund form of the verb. to determine.Acceptable Ways of Stating the General Objective Transform the problem statement from an interr form to a declarative form.e. determining. Infinitive form of the verb can be used to introduce the problem statement. specifying . identifying. to identify.e. to specify. i. i.. etc.

Title Organizational Effectiveness and Management Functions of Administrators and Faculty Members of DMMMSU. La Union: Input to a One-Year Service Plan” .

as assessed by non-teaching staff and student leaders of DMMMSU. La Union. Anchored on this problem.General Statement of the Problem The study seeks to determine the level of organizational effectiveness and management functions of administrators and the faculty members. City of San Fernando. La Union. and SY 20142015. La Union administrators and faculty members. a one-year service plan was formulated to enhance and improve the organizational effectiveness and management functions of DMMMSU. .

of seminars and trainings attended. and their highest educational attainment? .Specific Objectives Specifically. gender. rank. no. of years of experience as administrators or teachers. What is the demographic profile of the administrators and faculty members from the different colleges in terms of: age. it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. position. no.

Decision-making d. Management innovation c. areas of concern: a. Responsiveness of the schools’ welfare b. What is the level of effectiveness of the administrators and faculty members along the ff.Specific Objectives 2. Leadership behavior and e. Accountability? .

Planning b. Evaluating .Specific Objectives 3. Leading c. What is the level of effectiveness of the 5 management functions of administrators and faculty members in terms of the ff: a. Organizing d. Coordinating and e.

Specific Objectives 4. Is there a significant relationship between the level of effectiveness of the administrators and faculty members along the 5 mentioned areas of concern and to their level of effectiveness along the 5 mentioned management functions? .

Specific Objectives 5. Based on the problem. what one-year service plan can be formulated to help enhance the organizational effectiveness and Management functions of the respondents? .

End of Presentation Thank you for Listening! Have a Good Day! Let’s Do Research Together…VEV .