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**Patel College of Engineering
**

Ganpat University

1

**Points and lines
**

Points are displayed using pixel location

Application program

Two ways

Raster scan conversion

The electron beam sweeps across each horizontal

scan line, it emits a burst of electrons whenever a

value of 1 is encountered in the frame buffer

Vector scan conversion

point plotting instructions in the display list and the

coordinate values in these instructions are

converted to deflection voltages that position the

electron beam at the screen location.

2

both with integer coordinates. determine which pixels on a raster screen should be on in order to make a picture of a unit-width line segment starting from P and ending at Q. 3 . Precise definition of line drawing Given two points P and Q in the plane.Points and lines (conti…) Line drawing is accomplished by calculating intermediate positions along the line path between specified end points.

Points and lines (conti…) screen locations are in integers.48.21).20. rounding causes lines to be displayed with stair step appearance also called “jaggies” remedies by using high resolution screen 4 .51) would be converted to pixel position (10. A computed point (10.

left to right across each scan line. scanlines a scan lines are numbered consecutively from 0. 5 . To load a specified color into frame buffer at a position corresponding to column x along scan line y.Line drawing A line segment in a scene is defined by the coordinate positions of the line end-points.

Line Equation Let’s quickly review the equations involved in drawing lines y yend Slope-intercept line equation: y m x b yend y0 m xend x0 y0 x0 xend x b y0 m x0 6 .

Line Drawing Algorithm The slope of a line (m) is defined by its start and end coordinates The diagram below shows some examples of lines and their slopes •We could simply work out the corresponding y coordinate for each unit x coordinate 7 .

Line Drawing Algorithm First work out m y 5 2 (7. 2) 52 3 72 5 3 4 b 2 2 5 5 2 3 4 5 6 7 x Now for each x value work out the y value: 3 4 3 3 4 1 y (3) 3 2 y (4) 4 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 4 4 3 4 2 y (5) 5 3 y ( 6) 6 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 8 . 5) and b: m (2.

this approach is just way too slow The equation y = mx + b requires the multiplication of m by x Rounding off the resulting y coordinates 9 .Line Drawing Algorithm Now just round off the results and turn on these pixels to draw our line 3 y (3) 2 3 5 1 y ( 4) 3 3 5 4 y (5) 3 4 5 y (6) 4 2 4 5 However.

Line Drawing Algorithm In the previous example we chose to solve the parametric line equation to give us the y coordinate for each unit x coordinate What if we had done it the other way around ? y b x m m yend y0 xend x0 b y0 m x0 10 .

1 /2 m = .1 /3 m=0 m=∞ m=4 m=2 m=1 m = 1/ 2 m = 1 /3 m=0 11 .Line Drawing Algorithm If the slope of a line is between -1 and 1 then we work out the x coordinates for a line based on it’s unit y coordinates Otherwise we do the opposite – y coordinates are computed based on unit x coordinates m = -4 m = -2 m = -1 m = .

x Similarly we can obtain the x interval ∆x corresponding to a specified ∆y as ∆x= ∆y / m These equations form the basis for determining deflection voltages in analog devices.x1 Also for any given interval ∆x along a line. 12 .DDA line drawing Algorithm Digital Differential Analyser The Cartesian slope-intercept equation for a straight line is y= m. m = y2-y1 / x2-x1 b= y1-m. we can compute the corresponding y interval ∆y from ∆y= m. Given the endpoints of a line segment. x + b m is the slope of the line and b is the y intercept.

for any given x interval ∆x along a line. lines are plotted with pixels. and step sizes in the horizontal and vertical directions are constrained by pixel separations. ∆ x These equations form the basis for determining deflection voltages in analog devices. Hence we ought to “sample” a line at discrete positions and determine the nearest pixel to the line at each sampled position. we can compute the corresponding y interval ∆y from ∆y= m.DDA line drawing Algorithm Also . 13 . On Raster systems.

DDA line Concept 14 .

Use of Symmetry If we could draw lines with positive slope (0<=slope<=1) we would be done. For a line with negative slope (0>=slope>=-1) We negate all Y values For a line with slope > 1 or slope <-1 we just swap x and y axes yk 1 yk m 1 xk 1 xk m 15 .

DDA line drawing Algorithm(conti…) Again the values calculated by the equations used by the DDA algorithm must be rounded to match pixel values 16 .

DDA line drawing Algorithm(conti…) summary The DDA algorithm is much faster than our previous attempt In particular. there are still two big issues: Accumulation of round-off errors can make the pixelated line drift away from what was intended The rounding operations and floating point arithmetic involved are time consuming 17 . there are no longer any multiplications involved However.

3) and (3.Bresenham’s Line Algorithm An accurate and efficient raster line algorithm Uses only integer calculations Scan lines and pixel columns • Move across the x axis in unit intervals and at each step choose between two different y coordinates • For example. from position (2. 4) • We would like the point that is closer to the original line 18 . 3) we have to choose between (3.

Bresenham’s Line Algorithm (conti…) yk+1 y yk dupper dlower xk+1 At sample position xk+1 the vertical separations from the mathematical line are labelled dupper and dlower 19 .

Bresenham’s Line Algorithm (conti…) The y coordinate on the mathematical line at xk+1 is: y m( xk 1) b So. dupper and dlower are given as follows: d lower y yk m( xk 1) b yk d upper ( yk 1) y yk 1 m( xk 1) b We can use these to make a simple decision about which pixel is closer to the mathematical line 20 .

Bresenham’s Line Algorithm (conti…) This simple decision is based on the difference between the two pixel positions: d lower d upper 2m( xk 1) 2 yk 2b 1 x(d lower y d upper ) x(2 ( xk 1) 2 yk 2b 1) x 2y xk 2x yk 2y x(2b 1) 2y xk 2x yk c a decision parameter pk for the kth step along a line is given by: pk x(d lower d upper ) 2y xk 2x yk c 21 .

Bresenham’s Line Algorithm (conti…) If pk is negative. then we choose the lower pixel. otherwise we choose the upper pixel yk+1 y yk dupper dlower xk+1 At step k+1 the decision parameter is given as: pk 1 2y xk 1 2x yk 1 c pk 1 pk 2y ( xk 1 xk ) 2x( yk 1 yk ) 22 .

y0)pis 0 given 23 .yk is either 0 or 1 depending on the sign of pk The first decision parameter p0 is evaluated at 2y as: x (x0.Bresenham’s Line Algorithm (conti…) But. xk+1 is the same as xk+1 so: pk 1 pk 2y 2x( yk 1 yk ) where yk+1 .

2Δx) and get the first value for the decision parameter as: p0 2y x 4. the next point to plot is ( xk+1. yk) and: pk 1 pk 2y Otherwise.Bresenham’s Line Algorithm (conti…) Bresenham’s Line Algorithm steps: (for |m| < 1. starting at k = 0. y0) 3. Input the two line end-points. storing the left end-point in (x0. y0) 2. perform the following test. At each xk along the line. Δy. Repeat step 4 (Δx – 1) times 24 . Plot the point (x0. If pk < 0.0) 1. the next point to plot is (xk+1. yk+1) and: pk 1 pk 2y 2x 5. Calculate the constants Δx. 2Δy. and (2Δy .

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