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Boiling heat transfer in compact heat exchangers

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**of compact heat exchangers requires a specially designed Vapour Cycle System test rig. Our
**

objective is analyzing compact heat exchangers fin geometry through CFD Technique.

Experimental studies will give accurate results but requires more time and high cost.

Experimental studies cannot be done at preliminary stage of the design, can be done after

complete design and manufacturing of the product. Our attempt is to analyze the boiling heat

transfer phenomena for phase transformation application using CFD technique. This is done

by using commercially available package ANSYS CFX 12. We have taken a typical compact

heat exchanger fin geometry of 30 FPI and analyzed through CFD Technique, compared with

experimental data, thus validating our model. The working fluid used in the model is

Refrigerant R134a. This project work gives focus on analyzing and predicting boiling heat

transfer phenomena through CFD Technique.

CFD TOOL USED:- ANSYS CFX 12

GENERAL SYSTEMS

• ENVIRONMENTAL CONTOL SYSTEMS (ECS)

•

HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

•

FUEL SYSTEMS

**• SECONDARY POWER SYSTEMS
**

• RADAR COOLING SYSTEM

• AGGREGATES

**ENVIRONMENTAL CONTOL SYSTEMS (ECS)
**

& LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

**Bleed air control system
**

Cold air generation system

Temperature control system

Windscreen and canopy demist system

Avionics bay cooling system

RADAR cooling system

RADAR Pressurization system

Cabin sealing system

Cabin pressure control system

Cabin ventilation system

Cabin air distribution system

Air supply for fuel tank Pressurization

Ground cooling system for avionics & cabin

System controls, monitoring & indications

**Objective of the study
**

To study the regimes of boiling and analyze.

Numerical prediction of boiling heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop characteristics of

strip fins used in heat exchanger.

Validation of CFD results with experimental data.

Outline of Thesis

This thesis is organized into 8 chapters beginning with the Introduction and concluding with the

results and discussions. The seventh and last chapter forms the conclusion and future scope of work.

Chapter 2, the current chapter, presents a brief introduction to the subject of compact heat

exchangers; classification, plate fin surfaces and defines the geometrical variables, and brings out the

relationship between the input and performance parameters. Chapter 3 contains detailed review of available

literature. It covers books and papers of general interest in the area of heat exchangers with special emphasis

on compact heat exchangers for boiling and outlines the objectives of the thesis.

Chapter 4 explains about the Numerical methods, the governing equations of CFD CFX solver and

HyperMesh. Chapter 5 contains Description of problem and geometry, the boundary conditions enforced and

convergence criteria. Chapter 6 focuses on the validation of the numerical results with experimental values.

Chapter 7 deals with the results and discussion of the present investigation.

Chapter 8 provides conclusion from the current study and recommendation for further research .

1.INTRODUCTION

Boiling and Compact Heat Exchangers for Phase Change

Boiling heat transfer can be applied to heat exchange processes and energy conversion. The

requirements for smaller flow passages, such as that of minichannels and microchannels,

arise from the need for heat transfer enhancement. The increased heat flux dissipation in

microscale devices and the rapid emergence of Microscale devices and heat exchangers that

need cooling are overwhelming the industry

Two-phase cooling with phase change allows much larger increases in heat dissipation than

single-phase cooling. The main advantage of having a boiling flow system than a single phase

flow system is that larger amounts of thermal energy can be carried through the latent heat of

vaporisation than by the specific heat capacity of the liquid alone.

Applications

The traditional areas of compact heat exchanger applications such as aerospace, automotive,

cryogenics continue to demand for even higher heat transfer with further shrinking of available

space, there is large number of new areas coming up in the usage of compact heat

exchangers.

These include areas such as cooling of electronic equipment, cooling of LASER and related

technologies, cooling technology for fuel cells etc. A number of traditional industries have also

turned towards compact heat exchangers including chemical process industry, power industry,

and food & beverages industry. The usage of compact heat exchangers for multi-phase flow

is another area in which a lot of attention has been paid in the recent years

if the temperature of the liquid is below the saturation temperature. while forced convective boiling occurs only in flow boiling. the process is called subcooled boiling.Boiling Phenomena Heat transfer primarily combines one or several of the following mechanisms: conduction. radiation. Boiling is defined as the process of phase changing the state of a substance from liquid to vapour by heating it past its boiling point. whereas if the liquid is maintained at the saturation temperature the process is known saturated boiling. • Flow boiling: where the fluid has a velocity relative to the heating surface. condensation. . 1. growing and finally detaching from the surface.Geometry • Pool Boiling: where the heat is transferred to a stagnant fluid. • In addition. and boiling. In this review we are primarily concerned with the boiling mechanism. Heat Transfer Mechanisms • Nucleate Boiling: where heat is transferred by means of vapor bubbles nucleating. Different types of boiling can be defined according to the geometric situation and to the mechanism occurring. • Convective boiling: where heat is conducted through the liquid and this one evaporates at the liquid. convection. 2. • Film boiling: where the heat is transferred by conduction and radiation through a film of vapor that covers the heated surface and the liquid vaporizes at the vapor liquid interface.vapor interface without bubble formation. • Nucleate boiling and film boiling may occur in both pool boiling and flow boiling.

Pool Boiling Fig: Typical Boiling Curve and heat transfer mechanism for Water at 1 Atm Pressure Pool boiling is defined as boiling from a hot solid surface submerged in an extensive volume of liquid which. and qualitatively illustrated for saturated pool boiling in Figure . The relationship between heat flux q” and the wall superheat is known as the boiling curve. is stagnant. apart from any convection induced by the boiling process.

where an increase in the heat transfer coefficient occurs with increasing flow velocity. also known as the dry-out condition. The critical heat flux (CHF) occurs when this thin liquid film dries out. when the liquid film at the wall becomes very thin. see Figure These flow regimes. slug. plug and annular flows. Region I being identified as forced convection. different flow regimes can exist in the bulk such as bubbly. During the fully developed nucleate boiling region of the curve. In annular flows.Flow Boiling and Two Phase Flow Fig: Illustration of forced convective boiling with qualitative temperature profile for a uniform heat flux boundary condition. nucleate boiling is restrained and the heat removal is by evaporation at the thin liquid film. as illustrated in Figure are typical inside and along the length of macrochannels. .

bullet shaped with a hemispherical nose and a blunt tail end. These bubbles. several flow patterns exist depending on the applied heat flux to the channel and inlet flow conditions There has been a lot of experimental work performed in the literature on flow pattern analysis in macrochannels. • Intermittent or slug flow: Bubble collision and coalescence at increased void fraction results in larger bubbles that will eventually fill the tube diameter and become elongated. . as the basis for a model and also for predicting particular liquid flow and heat transfer phenomena. are commonly known as Taylor bubbles.Flow Patterns Fig: Illustration of flow patterns observed in a vertical up flow inside a macrochannel During flow boiling in a macroscale channel. The interface is disturbed by high frequency waves and ripples and liquid may be entrained in the gas core as small droplets. The identification of flow patterns in macrochannels is important. • Bubbly flow: The gas phase is dispersed in the form of discrete bubbles in the continuous liquid phase. • Annular flow: The liquid flows in a thin film on the wall while the gas flows as a continuous phase in the center of the tube. The bubbles may vary widely in size and shape but are typically nearly spherical and smaller than the diameter of the tube.

but also in conventional industries. However. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a better flow boiling heat transfer correlation for R-134a in minichannels.R134a Refrigerant Boiling HFC refrigerant R-134a is one of the most widely used refrigerant in many home. among which most are empirically formulated from data analysis. Consequently. . flow boiling heat transfer of R-134a in minichannels remains a problem unsolved and controversial opinions are not uncommon. A number of correlations for flow boiling hear transfer have been proposed. resulting in wide applications of minichannels evaporators not only in high-tech sects such as aeronautical and aerospace fields. the design of more efficient and compact air conditioning systems is increasingly important. automobile and aircraft air conditioning systems. With the increasing demand for energy conservation and space saving. flow boiling heat transfer in minichannels has received considerable investigations in the last 20 years and is still an intense research spot.

crystallize. Compact plate fin heat exchangers are widely used in aerospace. is on the boiling heat transfer applicable to all plate fin heat exchangers. between a solid surface and a ﬂuid.2. In most heat exchangers. low weight and moderate cost. heat transfer between ﬂuids takes place through a separating wall or into and out of a wall in a transient manner. concentrate. Recently efforts are being made in India towards the development of small plates fin heat exchangers for cryogenic and aerospace applications. Although these exchangers have been extensively used around the world for several decades.COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS A heat exchanger is a device that is used to transfer thermal energy (enthalpy) between two or more ﬂuids. the objective may be to recover or reject heat. distill. however. They are characterized by high effectiveness. This thesis constitutes a part of this overall effort. Its focus. or control a process ﬂuid. the ﬂuids exchanging heat are in direct contact. In other applications. or between solid particulates and a ﬂuid. . at diﬀerent temperatures and in thermal contact. cryogenic and chemical industries. fractionate. automobile. there are usually no external heat and work interactions. Typical applications involve heating or cooling of a ﬂuid stream of concern and evaporation or condensation of single. In a few heat exchangers. or sterilize. In heat exchangers. pasteurize.or multicomponent ﬂuid streams. compactness (high surface area density). the technologies related to their design and manufacture remain confined to a few companies in developed countries.

. Each stream enters the block from its own header via ports in the sidebars of appropriate layers and leaves in a similar fashion. The edges of corrugated layers are sealed by sidebars. The first and last sheets called cap sheets are usually of thicker material than the parting sheets to support the excess pressure over the ambient and to give protection against physical damage. The header tanks are welded to the side bars and parting sheets across the full stack of layers. A schematic view of such an exchanger is given in fig The corrugations serve both as secondary heat transfer surface and as mechanical support against the internal pressure between layers.Compact plate fin heat exchangers A compact plate fin heat exchanger is an exchanger consisting of a block of alternating layers of corrugated fins and flat separators known as parting sheets. Streams exchange het by flowing along the passages made by the corrugations between the parting sheets. Corrugations and sidebars are brazed to the parting sheets on both sides to form rigid pressure containing voids.

Low weight Multi-stream operation Disadvantages • • • Limited range of temperature and pressure. The brazing material in case of aluminium exchangers is an aluminium alloy of lower melting point. Aluminium is preferred in cryogenic and aerospace applications because of low density. The maximum design pressure for brazed aluminium plate fin heat exchangers is around 90 bars.Merits and drawbacks • • • • High thermal effectiveness and close temperature approach. which limits its application to clean and relatively non-corrosive fluids Difficulty to repair in case of failure or leakage between passages. Materials • • • Plate fin heat exchanges can be made in variety of materials. At temperatures above ambient. Stainless steels. Large heat transfer surface area per unit volume. high thermal conductivity and high strength at low temperature. nickel and copper alloys have been used at temperatures up to 500° C. while that used in stainless steel exchangers a nickel based alloy with appropriate melting and welding characteristics. . Difficulty in cleaning of passages. most aluminium alloys lose mechanical strength.

Manufacture • • • The basic principles of plate fin heat exchanger manufacture are the same for all sizes and all materials. the counter flow arrangement provides the highest heat (or cold) recovery. The methods in common use are salt bath brazing and vacuum brazing. The corrugations. while the parallel flow geometry gives the lowest. air-conditioning Flow arrangement (i) parallel flow. including partial and reflux condensation. Condensation. Applications • • • • • Boiling Refrigeration systems Exchange of heat between gases. (ii) counter flow (iii) cross flow. liquids or both. place in a furnace and brazed to form the plate fin heat exchanger block. parting sheets and cap sheets are held together in a jig under a predefined load. The header tanks and nozzles are then welded to the block. Thermodynamically. taking care that the brazed joints remain intact during the welding process. sidebars. .

they are extensively used in air separation. . trapezoidal or triangular passages. First. among other things. It consist of a type of interrupted surface. louvered. each segment being offset laterally by half the fin spacing in the fig. The most common fin configurations are (i) Plain (straight and uninterrupted ) fins with rectangular.Plate fin surfaces The performance of the plate fin heat exchanger is determined. boiling and other cryogenic applications where mass velocities are low and high thermal effectiveness is essential. In the other hand. The thinner boundary layer offers lower thermal resistance compare to continuous fin types. Above a critical Reynolds number. while the heat transfer performance goes down. interrupted surfaces offer an additional mechanism of heat transfer enhancement. by geometry of the fins. perforated and pin fins. Therefore offset fins are used less frequency in very high Reynolds number applications. which may be visualized as set of plain fins cut normal to the flow direction at regular intervals. (ii) uninterrupted wavy fins and (iii) interrupted fins such as offset strip. Surface interruption enhances heat transfer by two independent mechanisms. it prevents the continuous growth of thermal boundary layer by periodically interrupting it. • • • • Fig: (a) Plain Rectangular fin (b) Plain Trapezoidal fin (c) Wavy fin (d) Lanced & Offset fin (e) Louvered fin (f ) Perforated This is the most widely used fin geometry in high performance plate fin heat exchangers. but at the expense of higher-pressure drop. For specified heat transfer and pressure drop requirements. An undesirable characteristic of this type of fin is that at high Reynolds numbers the friction factors remains nearly constant. The heat transfer performance of offset strip fin is often as much as 5 times that of plain fin surface of comparable geometry.

Dhir [4] International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 4.3.LITERATURE SURVEY 1.Three-dimensional simulation of saturated film boiling on a horizontal cylinder by Gihun Son. Manel Valle`s b.Numerical analysis of vapor bubble growth and wall heat transfer during flow boiling of water in a microchannel by Abhijit Mukherjee. Kandlikar [6] 6. .CFD simulation of forced convective boiling in heated channels by Boštjan Končar. Eckhard Krepper [3] 3. Alberto Coronas b International Journal of refrigeration.*. Francisco Ta´boas a.Compact heat exchangers for phase change by Wadekar VV [2] 2. Kwan-Soo Lee [7] 7. Mahmoud Bourouis b. Bhowmik. Donowski and Satish G. Kandlikar [5] Proceedings of ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 5. Satish G. Vijay K.Analysis of heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in an offset strip ﬁn heat exchanger by H.Flow boiling heat transfer of ammonia/water mixture in a plate heat exchanger.Correlating Evaporation Heat Transfer Coefficient Refrigerant R-134a in a Plate Heat Exchanger by Vincent D.

. T. M. Barbara Watel International Journal of Thermal Sciences. Experimental heat transfer coefficients during refrigerant vaporization and condensation inside herringbone-type plate heat exchangers with enhanced surfaces. Review of saturated flow boiling in small passages of compact heat-exchangers. D. Longo*.Two-phase pressure drop of refrigerants during flow boiling in small channels: an experimental investigation and correlation development. 12. 10.8.A. A.W. Gasparella a. Longo a. G. Byonghu Sohn b International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow. 11.A. A. Sartori b International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer.N.*. Byongjoo Kim a. Francec International Journal of Multiphase Flow.*. 9.-C.*. Trana.M.Refrigerant R134a vaporization heat transfer and pressure drop inside a small brazed plate heat exchanger. Wambsganssa. Gasparella International Journal of refrigeration. R. G.strip fins. An experimental study of flow boiling in a rectangular channel with offset. Chyub. M.

Summary of literature • • • • • It was concluded from the existing literature is that very few work has been done for understanding the boiling heat transfer phenomena for evaporation application and effective usage of Compact Heat Exchangers. . Computational methods and numerical methods are well established and are reliable to carry out fluid flow analysis The present work is carried out in order to investigate the boiling heat transfer coefficient of R134a for offset strip fins The aim of this work is to report Numerical determination of the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient as a function of mass flux and heat flux for offset fin geometry using ANSYS CFX 12. The literature survey reveals that R134a is the best suitable refrigerant for our problem and desired test rig.

These fundamental principles can be expressed in terms of mathematical equations. . CFD is a computational technology that enables the study of dynamics of things that flow. Fluid dynamics is governed by sets of partial differential equations. pre. which in their most general form are usually partial differential equations.Numerical Methods • • • • Fluid dynamics deals with the dynamic behavior of fluids and its mathematical interpretation is called as Computational Fluid Dynamics. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) thus provides a qualitative (and sometimes even quantitative) prediction of fluid flows by means of Mathematical modeling (partial differential equations) Numerical methods (discretization and solution techniques) Software tools (solvers. Momentum and Energy is conserved. which in most cases are difficult or rather impossible to obtain analytical solution.e.4.and post processing utilities) CFD enables scientists and engineers to perform ‘numerical experiments’ (i. Computer simulations) in a ‘virtual flow laboratory’ real experiment CFD simulation. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of determining a numerical solution to the governing equations of fluid flow whilst advancing the solution through space or time to obtain a numerical description of the complete flow field of interest. The Physical aspects of any fluid flow are governed by three fundamental principles: Mass.

Momentum equation (Navier Stokes equation) and Energy equation. meaning that there is a separate equation for each of the coordinate directions (usually three). They are Continuity equation. It is thus a "mass balance" requirement posed in mathematical form. Continuity equations often can be expressed in either integral or differential form as shown below. The Navier-Stokes equations are vector equations. V dA dA 0 cs t cv This is a statement of the principle of mass conservation for a steady. The other governing equation is the Momentum Equation. requires that the mass of fluid entering a fixed control volume either leaves that volume or accumulates within it. The flow of most fluids may be analyzed mathematically by the use of two equations. often referred to as the Continuity Equation. with one inlet and one outlet. Continuity Equation It defines that as a radius of the pipe decreases the speed of fluid flow must increase and visa-versa. The first. one-dimensional flow.Governing Equations in CFD • • There are mainly three equations we solve in computational fluid dynamics problem. A continuity equation expresses a conservation law by “Equating a net flux over a surface with a loss or gain of material within the surface”. and is a scalar equation. or Navier-Stokes Equation. and may be thought of as a "momentum balance". .

the continuity and momentum equations are sufficient to specify the velocities and pressure (that is.Momentum (Navier Stokes) Equations • The momentum equation is a statement of Newton's Second Law and relates the sum of the forces acting on an element of fluid to its acceleration or rate of change of momentum. The Newtons second law of motion F = ma forms the basis of the momentum equation. four equations (Continuity + 3Momentum) . Energy Equation In situations where the fluid may be treated as incompressible and temperature differences are small.

and turbulent flows Newtonian or non-Newtonian flow Convective heat transfer.Introduction to CFX Capability of CFX Solver • • • • • • • • • • This software has various modelling capabilities that can be used in numerous kinds of analysis and application. or mixed (hybrid) grids that include prisms (wedges) or pyramids. quadrilateral/hexahedral. including cavitations . laminar. Incompressible or compressible flows Steady-state or transient analysis In viscid. including natural or forced convection Coupled conduction/convective heat transfer Radiation heat transfer Two-phase flows. Among its capabilities are listed below (CFX Manual – Program Capabilities 2004): Flows in 2D or 3D geometries are using unstructured solution-adaptive triangular/tetrahedral.

which solves the hydrodynamic equations (for u. This solution approach uses a fully implicit discretization of the equations at any given time step. For steady state problems. v. p) as a single system. or to calculate the solution for each time step in a time-dependent analysis . This reduces the number of iterations required for convergence to a steady state. the time-step behaves like an ‘acceleration parameter’. to guide the approximate solutions in a physically based manner to a steady-state solution. w.CFX solver formulations • • • Segregated Coupled implicit Coupled explicit ANSYS CFX uses a coupled solver.

the outer (or time step) iteration is controlled by the physical time scale or time step for steady and transient analyses. . whereas multiple inner iterations are performed per time step in transient analyses. The solution of each set of field equations shown in the flow chart consists of two numerically intensive operations. Only one inner (linearization) iteration is performed per outer iteration in steady state analyses. respectively. Equation Solution: The linear equations are solved using an Algebraic Multigrid method. For each time step: Coefficient Generation: The non-linear equations are linearized and assembled into the solution matrix.Coupled solver Solution Loop The flow chart shown below illustrates the general field solution process used in the CFX-Solver. When solving fields in the CFX-Solver.

Create Boundary Mesh around the cylinder. Solve the problem and note down the results. Solve the problem by initializing from velocity inlet and specifying the number of iterations.Steps involved in solving problem • • • • • • • • • • • • • First create the grid of appropriate dimensions and with appropriate step length to specify the problem domain in Hypermesh. Save it and export it to mesh file. Create lines joining two vertices. Enter values for boundary conditions. Create Areas selecting all the lines. Create Face Mesh to rest of the model. Read the file in CFX and check the mesh and scale the model. . Give the Boundary Conditions for entire domain. Selecting the appropriate solver to solve the problem. operating conditions etc. Create geometries like Vertices at appropriate grid points.

For details. Hence. . it may be used to simulate boiling and condensation. It is essential to consider the heat transfer processes on each side of the phase interface. For example. assume Ts=Tsat. the sensible heat flux to phase from the interface is and the sensible heat flux to phase β from the interface is: • • hα and h β are the phase α and phase β heat transfer coefficients respectively. or evaporation of saturated bubbles in superheated liquid. The interfacial temperature is determined from considerations of thermodynamic equilibrium. or melting and solidification.The Thermal Phase Change Model • • This model describes phase change induced by interphase heat transfer. the saturation temperature. see The Two Resistance Model In this case. Ignoring effects of surface tension on pressure. it may be used to model condensation of saturated vapor bubbles in sub-cooled liquid. the Two Resistance model for interphase heat transfer must be used in conjunction with the Thermal Phase Change model.

and represent interfacial values of enthalpy carried into and out of the phases due to phase change .In the case of interphase mass transfer. Total heat flux to phase α from the interface: Total heat flux to phase β from the interface: denotes mass flux into phase α from phase β . the interphase mass transfer is determined from the total heat balance. as follows.

a number of the sub-models of the overall mechanistic model were taken from correlations originally developed for exploitation in one-dimensional thermo-hydraulic simulation methods. hence in the sub-cooled boiling regime. leading to the growth of vapor bubbles at the sites. at this stage. Egorov et al. from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Evaporation starts in the microscopic cavities and crevices. after which the nucleation site is free to create another bubble. they are displaced by superheated liquid in the vicinity of the nucleation sites. formulated modifications of the onedimensional correlations with the aim of restoring mesh independence to the results. In regions of the wall not affected by bubble growth. the wall heat transfer to the liquid may be described by single phase convective heat transfer. the average temperature of the liquid in the vicinity of the heated wall is still well below the saturation temperature. In the implementation in CFX-5. This activation temperature is typically a few degrees above the saturation temperature. or turbulent) exceed the surface tension forces that keep them attached to the wall. The first and most well-known model of this kind was formulated by Kurul and Podowski (1991). gravitational. . this lead to results that were strongly mesh-dependent.7. However. It is known as the RPI model. The bubbles become detached from the sites when they are sufficiently large that external forces (inertial. In this model. with the near-wall distance taking the place of the centerline wall distance in the one-dimensional models. Liquid becomes supersaturated locally in these nucleation sites. As the bubbles depart from the wall.1.Wall Boiling Model • • Wall boiling starts when the wall temperature achieves a temperature which is sufficiently large to initiate the activation of wall nucleation sites. This model was implemented in CFX-4. which are always present on the solid surface. Unfortunately.

• Resolution of the problem. etc. The values of the pressures are constantly updated and corrected through iterations. heat transfer considerations. Transporting the problem to 3D. hexahedral and pyramidal (tetrahedral) volumes can be carried out. linked to CFX. In them. the generation of the mesh on the surfaces or volumes. For 3D there are structured meshes of quadrilateral faces and other faces easier to develop like the triangles. The geometry can be also imported from other CAD software’s like CATIA. several variables can be analyzed: velocity. velocity vectors. This stage is done with the software HyperMesh. inlet air. forces. X-Y plots. steady or time dependant flow. the mesh has to be checked and scaled and modified if necessary. This includes the choice of compressibility. path lines. • Definition of boundary conditions and other parameters. • Post Processing or analysis of the results computed. The physical models have to be tackled. In this stage the equations of the flow are solved. For creating the mesh there are different options that HyperMesh provides. initial conditions. The boundary conditions have to be clear because they specify the information of the state of the flow in the determined zones: walls. laminar or turbulent flow. viscosity. The convergence is checked until it reaches the criterion value set by the user. the variables of the flow have to be initialized and set to be computed from a certain part specified by the user. turbulence.PROCEDURE COMPUTATIONAL METHOD The steps to obtain a proper solution for the flow of a fluid in CFX are Pre Processing: Consisting in the construction of geometry. which is done through iteration until the convergence of the variables is obtained. density and others. before starting a simulation in CFX. First of all. . There are lots of choices: Contours. pressure. symmetries. outlet air.

5. evaporator. data acquisition and processor system with suitable instrumentation and digital display. . R134a will be used as refrigerant. the same should be converted to full vapor in the super heater. Lanced-offset fins of 30FPI are used on both refrigerant and water side. The R134a coming out of the evaporator will be in the form of full vapor. It is required to ensure that the refrigerant is fully converted to vapor form before entering into compressor. condenser.COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGER CFD ANALYSIS Description of problem and geometry • • The system consists of the major components such as variable speed reciprocating compressor. in case the fluid is not in full vapor. cooling system.

Bleed less Vapor Cycle System .

Hence. Since the heat exchanger geometry is different from those reviewed in the literature and due to the other constrains the analytical correlations that are derived in the literature do not suit the heat exchanger calculations under study. thickness (t). it was decided to use CFD techniques to perform the overall performance and optimizations analysis of the heat exchanger. Each fin has lance length (I). height (h). The dimensions that were chosen for the baseline heat exchanger geometry were based upon some initial sensitivity studies that were performed based on the thermal design. spacing (s).Lanced and offset strip fin channel dimensions Table shows the three-dimensional section of the geometry that was considered for the present study. a finite volume code based on a set of governing equations and boundary conditions.1 summarizes the flow channel dimensions for the baseline heat exchanger design. The fluid flow and heat transfer of the heat exchanger were performed using ANSYS CFX. . Table 2.

Geometric Model Creation Geometric Model of Compact Heat exchanger Geometric Model of Compact Heat exchanger sector 1o-Isometric View .

.

Total No of elements= 1 millions CFD Domain Mesh Close View of Heat exchanger channel mesh .

Flow is Turbulent 2.Flow is steady 3.Boundary conditions Following are the assumptions incurred on the present analysis: 1.Coupled implicit solver .

energy and scalar balances are obtained. k and ω equations.) are obeyed in all cells to a specified tolerance. These convergence criteria are found by monitoring the in the drag. Residuals measure imbalance (or error) in conservation equations. energy. • The solution no longer changes with additional iterations. momentum. • Mass.Convergence Criteria The iterative process is repeated until the change in the variable from one iteration to the next becomes so small that the solution can be considered converged. • At convergence: • All discrete conservation equations (momentum. etc. .The convergence of the simulations is said to be achieved when all the residuals reach the required convergence criteria. The convergence criterion for the continuity equation is 1E-4 and it is set to 1E-3 for the momentum.

.Grid Independence study The main objective of the grid independence study 1) Verification of mesh correctness for the problem 2) Examination of the solution sensitivity from the mesh changes (refinement and coarsening) and 3) Selection of the optimal mesh for the problem under consideration.

6.59 Pa to 16.45 Pa at the mid plane is shown .RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Contours of Pressure at mid plane The pressure drop is 22.

Contours of Velocity at mid plane The velocity at the mid plane is 0.05m/s – 0.07 m/s as shown in fig .

about -3°C (270°K) and slight variation around 3°C (273.54°K) can be observed from fig .Liquid Temperature The temperature of R134a (liquid) is almost constant and same as inlet.

Vapour Temperature The temperature of R134a (vapor) is constant throughout the channel. Heat transfer took place through latent heat of vaporization at constant temperature .

Modelling and analysis of complete heat exchanger is not possible because of computation limitation and other constraints.e. .98. i. It is observed in fig By modelling the full heat exchanger it can be clearly observed that liquid converting into vapor.Liquid volume fraction The inlet quality of R134a is 1(liquid) and outlet is 0. quality 1-0.

Vapour volume fraction The inlet quality of R134a is 1(vapor) and outlet is 0. .99.

and Tfluid is the bulk fluid temperature.65 . pressure(bar) temperature Q m3/s W/m2 Coefficient P T°C W/m2K 1 2 3 4 2.04 4000 535. which in saturated boiling is Tsat. The boiling heat transfer coefficient is defined as: where q” is the heat flux from the wall of the solid substrate into the fluid. Tw is the wall temperature. Input test points Test case Reduced Refrigerant Mass flow Wall Heat Flux Heat Transfer no.8 -3°C(270°K) 0.39 5000 685. the saturation temperature at the prevailing pressure P.Boiling Heat Transfer coefficient For modeling purposes.5-4. accurate heat transfer correlations are needed to properly design heat exchangers.42 3000 421.044 2000 347.

39w/m2k respectively for heat flux of 4000 w/m2 .The value of boiling heat transfer coefficient “h b” obtained from experiment and CFD analysis is 590 w/m2k and 535.

VALIDATION OF NUMERICAL RESULTS .7.

. This paper presents experimental results on boiling heat transfer of R134a in a compact plate fin heat exchanger.54 mm. fin thickness 0. which is acceptable.• Boiling of R134a in a plate-fin heat exchanger having offset fins experiment was conducted by Dr. 20. fin height 2. The overall error is about 10%. • From the above results it is observed that CFD results are in close agreement with experimental results.033 to 0. 25 and 30 °C.1016mm and serration length of 1. Holstenhofweg. The comparison results of CFD and experimental are shown in the graph-7.588mm The exchanger is made of aluminum and has high density offset fins (30 fins/inch).17 kg/s for water temperatures of 10.Ranganayakulu1 at Institute of Thermodynamics. Helmut Schmidt University of the Federal Armed Forces.Ch. The results are presented for heat fluxes up to 5500 W/m2 and mass fluxes up to 20 kg/(m2s) with water side flow rate varying from 0. It is also observed that the percentage increase in heat transfer coefficient for 2000w/m 2 3000w/m2 is 21% and for 3000w/m2 -4000w/m2 is 27%. Hamburg. The CFD results have been compared with the experimental results conducted by Dr. C Ranganayakulu1. 15. The heat transfer coefficient was generated for refrigerant side by keeping water side as constant heat flux boundary condition. Germany. • The CFD analysis carried out using Ansys-CFX software for the above fin geometry. fin density of 30 FPI.1. He has conducted experiments on lance & offset fin having geometry.

Holstenhofweg. with increase in heat flux. For validation of numerical investigation it is compared with experimental result and the error is noticed about 15%. This is compared with experimental results conducted by Dr.27 % in the heat flux range of 3000w/m 2 -4000w/m2. the heat transfer coefficient also increases. where as in the heat flux range of 4000w/m 2 -5000w/m2 the heat transfer coefficient increases from 27% . THE SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK • • Generation of data for boiling heat transfer 'hb' & friction factor 'f 'and correlation using further CFD analysis. This is done using function calculator of ANSYS CFX software. Development of wavy fin correlation for refrigerant R134a and other fluids.CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK CONCLUSION • • • • CFD analysis has been carried out using ANSYS CFX software for study of boiling heat transfer coefficient of compact plate fin heat exchanger for real and ideal cases using thermal phase change model which has latent heat application. C. . The heat transfer coefficient was generated for refrigerant side by keeping water side as constant heat flux. hence the expensive experiments cost and time may be avoided. Ranganayakulu1 at Institute of Thermodynamics.8. From above results it is conclude that CFD analysis shall give fair results for boiling heat transfer analysis. Helmut Schmidt University of the Federal Armed Forces. Hamburg. The heat transfer coefficient increases from 21% .28 %. Germany. It is observed from graph that.

I. Cuadros E. Eckhard Krepper 5. Int. Journal heat and mass transfer. The Netherlands. Kandlikar 7. Vijay K. Barbara Watel (2003) Review of saturated flow boiling in small passages of compact heat exchangers. Three-dimensional simulation of saturated film boiling on a horizontal cylinder. Donowski and Satish G. Kandlikar 6.Satish G. J Heat Transfer 29(6):927-938 . vertical channel with offset strip fins. Mandrusiak GD (1986) Annular film-flow boiling of liquids in a partially heated. International J of Thermal Sciences 42:107-140 9. Correlating Evaporation Heat Transfer Coefficient Refrigerant R-134 in a Plate Heat Exchanger. Carey VP. proceedings of IMECE2005 3. Gonzalez K. Proceedings of ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition Abhijit Mukherjee. Ranganayakulu. TPF: 25 10.C.Kandilkar. Abhijit mukherjee. Dhir. Gihun Son . Boiling of R134a in a plate-fin heat exchanger having offset fins . In: Proceedings of 5th European Thermal-Science Conference. Analysis of heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in an offset strip ﬁn heat exchanger H. 4. Corberan JM. CFD simulation of forced convective boiling in heated channels by Boštjan Končar. Kabelac (Under publication) 2. Mersmann. Numerical analysis of vapor bubble growth and wall heat transfer during flow boiling of water in a microchannel. Kwan-Soo Lee 8. Satish G. Franco A (2008) Heat transfer in a compact heat exchanger channel. Bhowmik.REFERENCES 1.Vincent D. S.

AIChE J 43:339-344 Wadekar VV (2001) Compact heat exchangers for phase change. Carey VP (1989) Convective boiling in vertical channels with different offset strip fin geometries. Trans. July 1-6. 437-443 Wadekar VV (1992) Flow boiling of heptane in a plate-fin heat exchanger passage. 353-363 Ladeinde F. Utah. AEA Technology Hyprotech. Davos. New York. Gasparella A (2005) Experimental heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop during refrigerant R134a vaporization inside a commercial brazed plate heat exchanger. France DM (1997) A correlation for nucleate flow boiling in small channels. Davos. Snowbird. Int J Refrigeration 30:821-830 Longo GA. Vicenza. July1-6. In: Compact Heat Exchangers for Power and Process Industries. HTFS. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Compact Heat Exchangers for the Process Industries. June 22-27. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 47:4125-4136 Longo GA. pp. J Heat Transfer 111:156-165 Carey VP (1985) Surface tension effects on convective boiling heat transfer in compact heat exchangers with offset strip fins. Gasparella A (2007) Refrigerant R134a vaporization heat transfer and pressure drop inside a small commercial brazed plate heat exchanger. Italy Boccardi G. ASME 107:970-974 Tran TN. 1-6 Sakaue S (1997) Boiling heat transfer of nitrogen in a thermosyphon condenser-reboiler. Switzerland. Celata GP (1997) Alternative refrigerants performance in Evaporators of plate-heat exchanger type.• • • • • • • • • • • Mandrusiak GD. 471-478 . Switzerland. HTD 201. pp. ASME. Alabi K (2001) A new procedure for two-phase thermal analysis of multi-pass industrial plate-fin heat exchangers. In: Proceedings of Compact Heat Exchangers and Enhancement Technology for the Process Industries. Wambsganss MW. pp. In: Proceedings of the IIR Conference. In: Proceedings of Compact Heat Exchangers and Enhancement Technology for the Process Industries. UK Longo GA. pp. Gasparella A (2004) Experimental heat transfer coefficients during vaporization and condensation inside herringbone type plate heat exchangers with enhanced surfaces.

ISBN 83-87423-14-9 Wieting AR (1975) Empirical correlations for heat transfer and flow friction characteristics of rectangular offset-fin plate-fin heat exchangers. editor: W. Szcecin. pp. 125:752 Roetzel W. ISBN: 88-467-0619-6.Edizioni ETS: Pisa. New York. 317-326. Germany. Int J Heat Mass Transf 30:69-84 Hu S. 113-122 Kays WM. Herold KE (1995) Prandtl number effect on offset fin heat exchanger performance: predictive model for heat transfer and pressure drop. Webb RL (1987) Heat transfer and friction in the offset strip-fin heat exchangers. Agrawal KN. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 38:1043-1051 Hu S. CHE2007-0016. S.Shah. Poland. USA . Mohanty B (2001) A comprehensive study of modified Wilson plot technique to determine the heat transfer coefficient during condensation of steam and R134a over single horizontal plain and finned tubes. Potsdam. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 38:1053-1061 Ismail LS. et al (Hrig): Compact Heat Exchangers: A Festschrift on the 60 th Birthday of Ramesh K. Heat Transfer Engineering 22(2):3-12 Styrylska TB. McGraw Hill. Ranganayakulu C. Sept 16-21. pp. 3rd edition. In: CELATA. G. Compact and Ultra-compact Heat Exchangers: Science. London AL (1984) Compact Heat Exchangers. J Heat Transfer 97:488-490 Joshi HM. Nowak. Varma HK. Herold KE (1995) Prandtl number effect on offset fin heat exchanger performance: experimental results. Na Ranong C (2000) On the application of the Wilson Plot Technique. Shah RK (2007) Numerical study of flow patterns of compact platefin heat exchangers and generation of design data for offset and wavy fins. Transactions of ASME.P. Italy and also In: International Symposium Szcecin-Leba 18.151-156. Lechowska AA (2003) Unified Wilson Plot Method for Determining Heat Transfer Correlations for Heat Exchangers.• • • • • • • • • Kumar R. Engineering and Technology. In: Proceedings of 6th International conference on Enhanced. Technical University.

Thank You ಧನನವವದಗಳಳ ಈ ಯಯಜನನಗನ ಪಪತನಕಕವವಗ ಹವಗಗ ಪರನಗಯಕಕವವಗ ಸಹವಯ ಮವಡದ ಎಲಲರಗಗ ನನನ ಕಕತಜಜತನಗಳಳ .

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