KULIAH

PARASITOLOGI
BLOK IMUNITAS INFEKSI
BY TRI WULANDARI K.

TOPICS ► Parasite causing allergy (respiratory form) ► Opportunistic parasite .

tuberculin . RO  damaging pathogen and other. ► Hipersensitivity types     Type I: Anaphylaxis (immediately type): IgE – mast cell/ basophil  histamine Type II: binding of Ab-Ag-complement  lysis parasite cell (ADCC) Type III: immune complex  MФCF  enzyme  lysis of local tissue Type IV: cell mediated immune (delayed type): Ag  APC  MФ  IL. Expl.INTRODUCTION HIPERSENSITIVITY ► Immune hiperresponsive so it can damage to the host tissue.: contac. IFN.

PARASITE CAUSING ALLERGY ► Cutaneous form (Sensory Block) ► Respiratory form  Migratory larvae of worm in lung (syndroma loeffler) ►Hook Worm ►Round worm  Occult filariasis  Trigerred by mites .

Larvae of ascaris or hook worm migrate to the lung. IgE ↑. Etiology . Blood imaging: eosinophilia. Pathogenesis (still unclear)  Larvae live in lung  inflammation >> larvae  pneumonitis.  First  Ascaris infection  Now  lung infiltration and eosinophilia in the blood (‘ PIE syndrome’)  other disease. fever (39-40 oC ). . The signs  cough (productive or nonproductive).Syndroma loeffler Definition  Horde of symptoms caused by the infiltration of eosinophil in lung temporary. difficulty in breathing like athsma bronchiale.

Hook Worm Life cycle .

A. lumbricoides (Round worm) life cycle .

 X-ray: infiltrate image in lung that spreading immediately and then disappear in 3 weeks. eosinophil. plasma cell.► Pathologic Features  Irregular spots diameter 5 mm-5 cm spread in lung: consist of collagen tissue with eosinophil. ► Diagnose  Clinical manifestation  History  Blood imaging: eosinophilia and IgE ↑  Sputum/ gastric lavage : charcott leyden chrystal. lymphocyte and giant cell. larvae  Feces: sometimes find the eggs of worm. .

although after a good processing  Personal hygiene mainly before eating    .► Treatment    Mebendazole Pyrantel pamoate Piperazine citrate ► Epidemiology and prevention Mass treatment Using of sanitation facility Avoid using feces for fertilizer.

wheeze. increasing IgE in serum and enlarge of spleen.Occult Filariasis (tropical pulmonary eosinophilia) ► Definition  Immunohiperresponsive condition in lymphatic filariasis  the main symptom caused by damage much of microfilaria. . breathlessness. more during night time and peripheral eosinophilia with an absolute count (2000-4000 /ml) of blood in the absence of microfilaria. ► Manifestation  OF characterized by cough.

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► Diagnose  Finding microfilaria in Meyer’s-Kouwenaar body in the viscera and increasing of IgE. It can find in spleen. ► Treatment  DEC . lung or hepar.► Pathologic Feature  Hyperplacia of lymph follicle and reticular cell  Meyer’s-Kouwenaar body: small yellow-grey tumour (1-2mm) spread in lymph tissue that contain eosinophils with microfilaria in the central (not larvae or adult).  Chest X-ray features are mottling opacities.

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farinae (American dust mite) ► Classification: Dust mites are arachnids. scorpions and ticks. defecating. . ect. ► ► Food: organic debris: dead skin. mating. dust house. semen. (and probably potato chips & cookie crumbs). the class of arthropods which includes spiders. carpet.DUST MITE ALLERGY ► Dermatophagoides sp:  D. mattres. eating. growing. ect. laying eggs  make us itch and wheeze (Many people develop severe allergies: difficulty breathing or even a severe asthma attack). pteronyssinus (European dust mite)  D. They live their whole lives in dark corner dust bunnies: hatching. ► Live in: cover bed.

runny nose. Respiratory form  Symptoms: allergic rhinitis: . asthma: wheezing. antihistamines. swollen of skin Treatment: local treatment with antihistamine / steroid cream . sneezing.Definition  Dust mite allergy is an immune system reaction to a certain dust mite protein. ect. Cutaneous form   Symptoms: itchy. redness..  Treatment: ► bronchodilators. and corticosteroids. breathing difficulties.

The mechanism of the inflammation triggered by dust mite ► ► ► Itchy red bumps on our skin  due to how our mast cells response to the allergen. There are antigens in dust mites. Once these antigens get under the skin of an allergic host. . ). in their droppings and shed exoskeletons. Mast cells are covered with molecules of Immunoglobulin E antibody (IgE. the antigens cause mast cells to go angry.

The end result is a "local inflammatory response". TNF. These materials cause fluid to leak from the capillaries and white cells including neutrophils. . IL-4 and other cytokines.► ► ► Antigens stick to the mast cell IgE antibodies. causing granules in the mast cell to release their contents into the surrounding tissue. T cells and eosinophils to leave the circulation. itchy welt. a red. This releases inflammatory materials : leukotrienes.

Dry cleaning  kills the mites (20-70 % allergen will remain) .Prevention: ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► Wash bedding at 55 oC  kill the mites and remove their allergen. Allergen-proof : mattress covers and pillow covers. Vacuum cleaner  “keeps in” all the allergens. Benzyl benzoate  kill dust mites. . Exposure direct sunlight (3 hours)  kill mites (not to allergen) . Regular washing in cool water  remove food for dust mites . Store out-of-season clothes in plastic.