L16-1

Review: Multiple Steady States in CSTR
XA,EB
XA,MB

• Plot of XA,EB vs T and XA,MB vs T
• Intersections are the T and XA that satisfy both mass balance (MB) &
energy balance (EB) equations
• Each intersection is a steady state (temperature & conversion)
• Multiple sets of conditions are possible for the same reaction in the same
reactor with the same inlet conditions!
Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft, Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

L16-2

Review: Heat Removal Term R(T) & T0
Heat removed: R(T)

Heat generated G(T)

 rA V

 FA0 

Cp0  1     T  TC   HRXo

R(T) line has slope of CP0(1+)

  UA Cp0FA0 Tc   Ta  T0
1 
R(T)

=∞

=0

R(T)

Increase 
Increase T0
T

When T0 increases, slope stays
same & line shifts to right

For Ta < T0

Ta

T0

T

When  increases from lowering
FA0 or increasing heat exchange,
slope and x-intercept moves
Ta<T0: x-intercept shifts left as ↑
Ta>T0: x-intercept shifts right as ↑
=0, then TC=T0 =∞, then TC=Ta

Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft, Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

no change in T • G(T) > R(T) (G(T) line above R(T) on graph): rate of heat generation > heat removal. Urbana-Champaign. so reactor heats up until a steady state is reached • R(T) > G(T) (R(T) line above G(T) on graph): rate of heat generation < heat removal. so reactor cools off until a steady state is reached Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. equal rate of heat generation & removal. University of Illinois.L16-3 Review: CSTR Stability G(T) Tc  R(T)  Ta  T0   UA Cp0FA0 1  R(T) > G(T) → T falls to T=SS1 G(T) > R(T) → T rises to T=SS1 G(T) > R(T) → T rises to T=SS3 2 Heat removed: R(T) 1 3 R(T) > G(T) →T falls to T=SS3 Heat generated G(T)  rA V   FA0  Cp0  1     T  TC   HRXo  • Magnitude of G(T) to R(T) curve determines if reactor T will rise or fall • G(T) = R(T) intersection. .

University of Illinois. Urbana-Champaign. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. CSTR) L16-4 Q Fin Fout Hin Hout W dEsys dt  & Q  Rate of rate of heat accumulation flow from = of energy in surroundings system to system dEsys dt & W n   FE i i i1 in  Rate of work Rate of energy done by added to + system on system by surroundings mass flow in  0 steady state dEsys dt n  FE i i i1 out Rate of energy leaving system by mass flow out  0 unsteady state Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft.L16: Unsteady State Nonisothermal Reactor Design Goal: develop EB for unsteady state reactor An open system (for example. .

University of Illinois. . Urbana-Champaign.variation n out dHi n dNi   Ni   Hi dt i1 dt i1 Total Energy Balance for unsteady state. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. constant PV Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft.L16-5 Change in System Energy with Time dEsys dt n & W &   FE Q i i i1 n in   FE i i i1 out n Energy of system is the sum of products of each species E sys   NiEi specific energy Ei & the moles of each species: i1 n Ei  Ui & Ui   Hi  PVi  so:  Esys   Ni  Hi  PVi  Differentiate wrt time i1  dEsys dt  dEsys n dHi n dNi d  n  d n    N  H  P N V  i  i    Ni  Hi  PVi    i i dt dt dt dt dt  i1  i1  i1 i1  dEsys dt Total V n dHi n dNi d   Ni   Hi   PV  dt i1 dt dt i1 n & W &   FH Q S i i i1 n in   FH i i i1 0 For well-mixed reactor with constant PV.

constant PV T dHi dHi dT o Evaluate recalling that Hi  H RX  TR    CpidT so Cpi dt dt dt T R n & W &   FH Q S i i i1 n in   FH i i i1 n out dT n dNi   NiCpi   Hi dt i1 dt i1 Need to put dNi/dt into terms that can be measured Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. Constant PV Total Energy Balance for unsteady state n n n dHi n dNi d & & Q  WS   FH   Ni   Hi   PV  = 0 i i   FH i i dt i1 dt dt i1 in i1 out i1 Special case: well-mixed reactors (e. CSTR or semibatch) with constant PV. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. Urbana-Champaign. University of Illinois.variation in total P or V can be neglected n & W &   FH Q S i i i1 n in   FH i i i1 n out dHi n dNi   Ni   Hi dt i1 dt i1 Total Energy Balance for unsteady state. batch.g.L16-6 Well-Mixed Reactors. ..

PV=0 n & W &   FH Q S i i i1 n in   FH i i i1 n out dT n dNi   NiCpi   Hi dt i1 dt i1 From the mass balance: Accumulation = In .Out + Gen dNi dNi  Fi0  F i  irA V Substitute  Fi0  F i  i  rA  V  d t dt n n n dT n & &  Q  WS   FH   NiCpi   Hi  Fi0  F i  irA V  i i   FH i i dt i1 i1 i1 in i1 out n n n n n n & W &   F H   FH   N C dT   H F   H F    H  r V  Q S i0 i0 i i i pi i i0 i i i i A dt i1 i1 i1 i1 i1 i1 Add FiHi to both sides of equation: n n n dT n & &  Q  WS   Fi0Hi0   NiCpi   HiFi0    iHi  rA V  dt i1 i1 i1 i1 Substitute ΣiHi =H°RX(T): n n n H°RX(T) & W &   F H   N C dT   H F  Ho  T   r V  Q S i0 i0 i pi i i0 RX A dt i1 i1 i1 Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. Urbana-Champaign. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. . University of Illinois.L16-7 EB for Well-Mixed Reactors.

L16-8 Simplified EB for Well-Mixed Reactors n n n dT o & & Q  W  F H  N C   HF   Solve for dT/dt: S i0 i0 i pi i i0  H RX  T   rA V  dt i1 i1 i1 Bring Fi0Hi and H°RX(T) terms to other side of equation: n n n dT o & &  Q  WS   Fi0Hi0   HF i i0  H RX  T   rA V    NiCpi dt i1 i1 i1 Factor Fi0Hi0 and Fi0Hi terms and divide by NiCpi : n Energy balance for unsteady state reactor with phase change: & W &   F  H  H   Ho  T   r V  Q S i0 i i0 RX A i1 n  NiCpi  dT dt i1 n & W &   F C  T  T   Ho  T   r V  Q S i0 pi i0 RX A Energy balance for dT i1  unsteady state reactor n dt  NiCpi without phase change: i1 Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. Urbana-Champaign. . University of Illinois.

.L16-9 Unsteady State EB. then: n  NiCpi  NA0 Cps where Cps  iCpi is the heat capacity of the solution i1 If the feed is well-mixed. Urbana-Champaign. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. nonisothermal reactor design Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. University of Illinois. it is convenient to use: Fi0 Cpi  FA0Cps Plug these equations and Ti0 = T0 into the EB gives: & W &  F C  T  T   Ho  T   r V  Q S A 0 ps i0 RX A NA0 Cps  dT dt This equation for the EB is simultaneously solved with the mass balance (design eq) for unsteady state. Liquid-Phase Rxns n & W &   F C  T  T   Ho  T   r V  Q S i0 pi i0 RX A i1 n   NiCpi dT dt i1 For liquid-phase reactions. often Cp = iCpi is so small it can be neglected When Cp can be neglected.

so:  & W &  Ho  T   r V  Q S RX A n  NiCpi  dT dt i1 Put the energy balance in terms of XA:  Ni  NA0  i   i X A  Ni0 where i  &  iCpi  CP NA 0 & W &  Ho  T   r V  Q S RX A   NA0   iCpi  Cp X A  i1  n dT  dt Solve with the batch reactor design equation using an ODE solver (Polymath) dX A NA0  rA V dt Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. University of Illinois.L16-10 Nonisothermal Batch Reactor Design n & W &   F C  T  T   Ho  T   r V  Q S i0 pi i0 RX A i1 0 n  NiCpi  dT dt i1 No flow. . Urbana-Champaign. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept.

. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept.Adiabatic Nonisothermal Batch Reactor Design L16-11 0 0 & W &  Ho  T   r V  dT Q S RX A   n dt   NA0   iCpi  Cp X A  i1  & 0 & =0 & Q In the case of no stirring work and adiabatic operation. W S  HoRX  T   rA V    NA0   iCpi  Cp X A  i1  n o dT Substitute:  H dT  RX  T   rA V    dt  iCpi  Cps dt NA0  Cps  Cp X A dT Rearrange:  dt dX A o o  H T   H T   C T  T an d -N  rA V Substitute: RX   RX  R  p R A0 dt dX A dT    HoRX  TR   Cp  T  TR  NA 0  NA0  CpS  Cp X A    dt dt dX A dT    HoRX  TR   Cp  T  TR    CpS  Cp X A   dt dt HoRX  T   rA V   NA0  CpS  Cp X A Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. University of Illinois. Urbana-Champaign.

Urbana-Champaign. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. . University of Illinois.Solve for how XA   Ho  T   C  T  T  dX A   C  C X  dTL16-12 RX R p R p A  pS  dt dt changes with T    HoRX  TR   Cp  T  TR  dX A   CpS  Cp X A dT   Get like terms together:  XA  X A0 0 CpS Integrate & solve for XA:  XA    T dX A dT    Cp X A T HoRX  TR   Cp  T  TR  0 CpS  T  T0  HoRX  TR   Cp  T  TR    XA  CpS  T  T0   HRX  T  Solving for T:  HoRX  T0  X A  HoRX  T 0  X A   T  T0    T  T0  n Cps  X A Cp  iCpi  X A Cp i1 Heat capacity of soln (calculate Cps if not given) Solve with the batch reactor design equation using an ODE solver (Polymath) XA t  NA0  0 dX A rA V Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft.

Urbana-Champaign. Solve design eq for comp as function of t 2.5 lb mol/ft3 1. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. (all components)= 0. using NA0 d t dt the calculation because V depends on t Rate eq: -rA = kCA dNA dNA   kC V   kNA Rearrange and integrate for NA Combine: A dt dt  NA  dNA t  ln     kdt    kt  NA  NA0 exp  kt   NA0 NA0 NA 0 NA Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft.L16-13 A 1st order. The reactor is well-insulated.5 Btu/lb mol °F CA0= 0.2 x 10-4 s-1 Cp. To control the temperature. so no heat is lost to the surroundings. . What is the flow rate of C after 2h? TC0 = 80 °F V0= 50 ft3 H°RX=-25000 Btu/lb mol k(100 °F)= 1. Solve EB for FC0 using that info & T=100 °F This is essentially a semi-batch reactor since only C is fed into the reactor dX A dNA  rA V would complicate Design eq:  rA V Note. The flow rate of C is adjusted to keep T constant at 100 °F. exothermic reaction A→B is run in a batch reactor. an inert liquid C is added to the reaction. liquid-phase. University of Illinois.

The reactor is well-insulated. Urbana-Champaign.L16-14 A 1st order. University of Illinois. exothermic reaction A→B is run in a batch reactor. . To control the temperature. The flow rate of C is adjusted to keep T constant at 100 °F. so: C0 pC i0 RX  T   rA V  rAV = -kCAV = -kNA where NA  NA0 exp  kt    FC0 CpC  T  Ti0   HoRX  T  kNA0 ekt Isolate FC0:  FC0   HoRX  T  kNA0 e kt CpC  T  Ti0    Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. an inert liquid C is added to the reaction. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. so no heat is lost to the surroundings. What is the flow rate of C after 2h? Use EB to find how the flow rate of C depends on the rxn (solve EB for F C0) 0 0 n & W &   F C  T  T   Ho  T   r V  Q S i0 pi i0 RX A dT i1  n dt  NiCpi 0 i1 0 n     Fi0Cpi T  Ti0  HoRX i1 n o  F C T  T   H    T r V   A  i0 pi i0 RX  T   rA V  i1 o  F C T  T   H   C is the only species that flows. liquid-phase.

16   50ft 3  25 lb mol  4 s1 7200s    lb mol s Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. an inert liquid C is added to the reaction. The flow rate of C is adjusted to keep T constant at 100 °F.2  10 s  25 lb mol  e 25. What is the flow rate of C after 2h? TC0 = 80 °F V0= 50 ft3 H°RX=-25000 Btu/lb mol k(100 °F)= 1.5 At 2h (7200s): FC0 lb mol ft 3    1.210 Btu   4  1  1.L16-15 A 1st order. The reactor is well-insulated.000 lb mol    Btu 0.5 100oF  80oF lb mol  F   FC0  3. To control the temperature. (all components)= 0.5 lb mol/ft3 FC0   HoRX  T  kNA 0 ekt CpC  T  Ti0   NA0  CA0 V0  0.5 Btu/lb mol °F CA0= 0.2 x 10-4 s-1 Cp. so no heat is lost to the surroundings. University of Illinois. Urbana-Champaign. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. . exothermic reaction A→B is run in a batch reactor. liquid-phase.

L16-16 Instead of feeding coolant to the reactor. and initially 25 lb mol of A are placed in the tank. where D is removed from the reactor Use EB that accounts for a phase change: 0 0 n & &   F  H  H   Ho  T   r V  QW Q˙ =0 S i0 i0 i RX A dT i  1  ẆS=0 n dt  NiCpi 0 i1 Clicker Question: Does dT/dt = 0? a) Yes b) No Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft.2 x 10-4 s-1 H°RX=-25000 Btu/lb mol Still a semibatch reactor. The reactor is wellinsulated. Urbana-Champaign. The solvent has a heat of vaporization of 1000 Btu/lb mol. What is the rate of solvent evaporation after 2 h if T is constant at 100 °F?Additional info: k(100 °F)= 1. . Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. a solvent with a low boiling point is added (component D). University of Illinois.

00012 s  7200s  F  0. so:   FD0  Hi0  Hi   HoRX  T  kNA 0 e kt  F  D0 Hi0-Hi = heat of vap 25. a solvent with a low boiling point is added (component D). and initially 25 lb mol of A are placed in the tank. Urbana-Champaign. University of Illinois. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. The solvent has a heat of vaporization of 1000 Btu/lb mol. What is the rate of solvent evaporation after 2 h? Additional info: k(100 °F)= 1. .2 x 10-4 s-1 H°RX=-25000 Btu/lb mol Still a semibatch reactor.000 FD0   HoRX  T  kNA0 ekt  Hi0  Hi   Btu  0.L16-17 Instead of feeding coolant to the reactor. and rAV = -kNA0(exp[-kt]).0316 lb mol   lbmol  s D0  s 1000Btu lb mol Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft.00012  25 lb mol e 0. where D is removed from the reactor Use EB that accounts for a phase change: 0 0 n & &   F  H  H   Ho  T   r V  QW Q˙ =0 S i0 i0 i RX A dT i  1  ẆS=0 n dt  NiCpi dT/dt = 0 0 i1 n   Fi0  Hi0  Hi   HoRX  T   rA V  i1  D is the only species that ‘flows’.

so: n dT  dt & W &   F C  T  T   Ho  T   r V  Q S i0 pi i0 RX A i1 n 0  NiCpi n i1 & W &   F C  T  T   Ho  T   r V  Q S i0 pi i0 RX A i1 Q˙ =UA(Ta-T). Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. CPA =CPS=20 J/g•K ẆS=0 CA0= 180 g/dm3 0= 500 dm3/min T0= 313 K = 900 g/dm3 H°RX(T) = -2500 J/g E=94852 J/mol·K k(313K)= 1. ẆS=0.1 min-1 a) Heat exchange area for steady state operation: SS operation means that T is constant. What is the heat exchange area required for steady state operation? Using this heat exchange area. and A is only species that flows  UA  Ta  T   FA0 CpA  T  TA0   HoRX  T   rA V  Plug in rA = -kCA and solve for A  UA  Ta  T   FA0 CpA  T  TA0   HoRX  T   kCA V  A HoRX  T   kC A V   FA0CpA  T  TA0  U  Ta  T  Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. University of Illinois. Urbana-Champaign.2 m3 CSTR.A liquid phase exothermic reaction A →B is carried out at 358K in a 0.L16-18 The coolant temperature is 273K and the heat transfer coefficient (U) is 7200 J/min·m2·K. plot T vs t for reactor start-up. .

1g dm3 HoRX  T   kCA V   FA0 CpA  T  TA0  g   dm3   180 500  90000 g min  3   min   dm     500 dm3 min  107.1 min-1 Use material balance to determine steady state value of C A FA0  FA  rA V  0  CA00  CA0  kCA V  0  CA00  C A0  kCA V  1. CPA =CPS=20 J/g•K ẆS=0 CA0= 180 g/dm3 0= 500 dm3/min T0= 313 K = 900 g/dm3 H°RX(T) = -2500 J/g E=94852 J/mol·K k(313K)= 1.2m   200dm3   m3   Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft.1 1   94852J mol  1 CA00 107.A liquid phase exothermic reaction A →B is carried out at 358K in a 0. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept.4min1 200dm3 Solve EB for A: FA0  180 g dm3 500 dm3 min U  Ta  T  3 1000dm3 V=0. What is the heat exchange area required for steady state operation? Using this heat exchange area. Urbana-Champaign.L16-19 The coolant temperature is 273K and the heat transfer coefficient (U) is 7200 J/min·m2·K.314 J mol K  313 358  0  kV min CA    A  C A  4.4 exp    CA k  358K  =    k  358K   min  8.2 m3 CSTR. . plot T vs t for reactor start-up. University of Illinois.

A liquid phase exothermic reaction A →B is carried out at 358K in a 0. plot T vs t for reactor start-up. CPA =CPS=20 J/g•K ẆS=0 CA0= 180 g/dm3 0= 500 dm3/min T0= 313 K = 900 g/dm3 H°RX(T) = -2500 J/g E=94852 J/mol·K k(313K)= 1.1 200dm  90000 20  358K  313K         3 min  min  g  K  dm    J   7 200  273K  358K   2   minm K A=227.L16-20 The coolant temperature is 273K and the heat transfer coefficient (U) is 7200 J/min·m2·K.2 m3 CSTR.4 min-1 CA= 4.1 g/dm3 CPA =20 J/g•K TA0= 313 K T= 358K Ta=273K  107.4 m2 Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. What is the heat exchange area required for steady state operation? Using this heat exchange area. University of Illinois.1 min-1 Solve for heat exchange area at SS: A HoRX  T   kCA V   FA 0 CpA  T  TA 0  U  Ta  T  FA0=90.4  g  g  J  3  4. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept.000 g/min H°RX(T) = -2500 J/g U= 7200 J/min·m2·K J    2500  g A  V=200 dm3 k= 107. Urbana-Champaign. .

4m2 CA0=180g/dm3 =V/0 Ta=273K HRX=-2500 J/g Ni0=mi0 V=200 dm3 CPs=20 J/g˙K 0=500 dm3 T0=313 Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. University of Illinois.1 1   11408. and k. dT/dt.1 1   94852 J mol  1 exp     min 8.L16-21 Will use Polymath to plot T vs t for CSTR start-up (unsteady-state). Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept.314 J mol  K 313 T     1. Urbana-Champaign.7  1  k= exp     min K 313 T    U= 7200 J/min·m2·K A=227.000g  m  200d m 9 0 0 mi0  V m i0  3  dm  rA=-kCA Amount of gas leaving reactor (L7) k= 1. & use  for the solution to calculate: g  3 & & &i0  180. Need equations for dCA/dt. so FA0 & Ni0 must also be in terms of mass FA0=90.000 g/min Substitute ṁi0 for Ni0. . dCA CA0 C A dNA     rA  FA0  FA  rA V Mass balance: dt   dt o dT UA  Ta  T   FA0CpA  T  Ti0   H RX  rA V   n dt  Ni0Cps i1 CPs is in terms of mass (J/g·K).

Urbana-Champaign.L16-22 Will use Polymath to plot T vs t for CSTR start-up (unsteady-state).000g  m n dt  Ni0Cps FA0=90. University of Illinois.1 1   11408. and k. .7  1 dCA CA0 CA k= exp       rA rA=-kCA   min K 313 T dt       o dT UA  Ta  T   FA0CpA  T  Ti0   H RX  rA V  &i0  180.000 g/min i1 U= 7200 J/min·m2·K A=227. dT/dt. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. 1.4m2 CA0=180g/dm3 =V/0 Ta=273K HRX=-2500 J/g Ni0=mi0 V=200 dm3 CPs=20 J/g˙K 0=500 dm3 T0=313 Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. Need equations for dCA/dt.

T (K) L16-23 t (min) Reaches steady state at ~12 minutes Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. . University of Illinois. Urbana-Champaign.

the initial time.A  FB0 Cp.000  H RX  T   H RX  TR   0 RX   mol n F C i 1 i0 pi n  FA 0 Cp.000 cal/mol CPA = CPS =15 cal/mol·K CpB=15 cal/mol·K ẆS=0 E = 20. and the final time that must be entered into Polymath in order to plot temperature vs time for the first 20 min of reactor start-up.T Q a & 0 W S  NiCpi i1 b a HRX  T   HoRX  TR   CP  T  TR  CP  CPB  CPA  Cp   15  15  cal 0 mol K cal o o o   H T   10. all constants. The coolant in the heat jacket is kept at 280 K. .B FB0  0   Fi0 Cpi  FA0 Cp. University of Illinois. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept. Urbana-Champaign.A   i 1 n  NiCpi  NA0 Cps i1   o UA T T  F C T  T   H T r V   A 0 p.000 cal/mol k = 1 min-1 at 400 K UA= 3200 cal/min•K 0= 300 L/min Need equations for how T changes with time. Provide all equations. n dT  dt & W &   F C  T  T   Ho  T   r V  Q S i0 pi i0 RX A i1 n  &  UA T .The elementary. exothermic reaction A →B is carried out in a 2 m3 L16-24 CSTR that is equipped with a heat jacket.A i 0 a RX R A Combine with EB: dT  dt NA0 Cps Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. & k changes with T. liquid phase. Pure A enters the reactor at 60 mol/min and a temperature of 310K. ΔHRX(TR) = -10. CA changes with time.

Pure A enters the reactor at 60 mol/min and a temperature of 310K.000 cal/mol CPA = CPS =15 cal/mol·K CpB=15 cal/mol·K ẆS=0 E = 20. Provide all equations. exothermic reaction A →B is carried out in a 2 m3 L16-25 CSTR that is equipped with a heat jacket. . ΔHRX(TR) = -10. liquid phase. the initial time. Chemical & Biomolecular Engr Dept.A i0 a RX R A mol dT    UA  3200 FA0  60 FA0 Ta  280 CPA  15 dt t  f   20 NA0 Cps Ti0  310 FA 0 V NA 0  0  NA0  0 V t  0  0   rA  kCA 0  300 CPS  15  20. Urbana-Champaign.000  1 1      1.987  400 T  k   1 exp    V  2m3 1000L 1m3  V  2000 Use the mass balance to get eq for CA(t) dCA CA0 C A dNA dNA     kC A   C   C   k C V  FA0  FA  rA V A0 0 A 0 A dt   dt dt   V 0 C A0  FA 0 0 Slides courtesy of Prof M L Kraft. & k changes with T. University of Illinois. cal o UA T T  F C T  T   H T r V   HoRX  T   10.The elementary. CA changes with time. The coolant in the heat jacket is kept at 280 K. all constants.000 A 0 p.000 cal/mol k = 1 min-1 at 400 K UA= 3200 cal/min•K 0= 300 L/min Need equations for how T changes with time. and the final time that must be entered into Polymath in order to plot temperature vs time for the first 20 min of reactor start-up.