AS-Level Maths

:
Mechanics 1
for Edexcel

M1.3 Kinematics
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Contents

Motion graphs

Motion graphs
Formulae for constant acceleration
Examination-style questions

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Kinematics
Kinematics involves the study of how things move.
It is only concerned with the motion itself, not the forces that
cause this motion.
The kinematics of an object is described in terms of its
distance,
displacement,
speed,
velocity,
acceleration.

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m.Distance and displacement Distance is a scalar quantity. The distance a body has travelled is literally the amount of ‘ground’ it has covered during its motion. Displacement describes how far a body is from its starting point and in what direction. 4 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 . Distance and displacement are measured in metres. Displacement is a vector quantity.

Speed and velocity are measured in metres per second. velocity and acceleration Speed is a scalar quantity. Acceleration is the rate of change of speed or velocity.Speed. ms –1. It is the rate at which a body changes its position. It is measured in metres per second per second. 5 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 . Velocity is a vector quantity. The velocity of a body relates to how fast the body is travelling and in what direction. Acceleration can be a scalar or a vector quantity. ms –2. Negative acceleration is often called deceleration or retardation. The speed of a body relates to how fast the body is travelling.

The most common graphs are position-time. The gradient of a distance-time graph gives speed. The area under an acceleration-time graph gives the change in velocity. 6 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 . velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs. speed-time.Motion graphs The kinematics of a body can be represented graphically. The area under a velocity-time graph gives the change in displacement. The gradient of a velocity-time graph gives acceleration. The area under a speed-time graph gives the distance travelled. The gradient of a displacement-time graph gives velocity.

3 metres per minute Time (mins) 7 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 . velocity = 30 = –33. The person then returns to their starting position. 1000 velocity = 20 = 500 metres per minute 600 400 200 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 For the second part of the journey the velocity is zero. 1000 For the last part. 800 For the first part of the journey. The gradient of this graph 1000 gives velocity.Displacement-time graph Displacement (m) This graph shows a journey of 2000 m. It includes a stop of 1 hour after travelling 1000 m metres.

3 metres per minute Time (mins) 8 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 . Distance (m) 2000 1600 1200 800 400 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 For the first part of the journey. The gradient of this graph gives speed. 1000 speed = 20 = 500 metres per minute For the second part of the journey the speed is zero. 1000 For the last part. for this graph there is no indication of direction.Distance-time graph This graph also shows a journey of 2000 m with a 1 hour stop. speed = 30 = 33. However.

The first part of the graph shows an acceleration of 0. the second part 0 and the last part a deceleration of 1. 9 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .Velocity-time graph Velocity (ms–1) The area under a velocity-time graph gives displacement.5 10 7. In this example. the area under the graph is given by a trapezium with height 12. 12.5 = 1375 m The gradient of the graph gives acceleration.5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Time (s) Displacement = 21 (130 + 90)×12.42 ms –2.25 ms –2.5 and parallel sides of length 130 and 90.5 5 2.

10 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 . The last part shows constant velocity. The second part shows a deceleration of 6 ms–2.Acceleration-time graph This graph shows constant acceleration. Acceleration (ms–2) 6 4 2 0 –2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (s) –4 –6 The first part shows an acceleration of 4 ms–2.

Acceleration (ms–2) 6 4 2 0 –2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (s) –4 –6 For the first part. change in velocity = 4 × 8 = 32 ms–1 For the second part. change in velocity = –6 × 3 = –18 ms–1 There is no change in velocity for the last part. 11 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .Acceleration-time graph The area under an acceleration-time graph gives change in velocity.

Graphs example 1 A man travels in a lift from the top floor of a hotel to reception on the ground floor. The lift accelerates with a constant acceleration of 1 ms –2 until it reaches a constant velocity of 4 ms–1. It then travels at this constant velocity for t seconds before decelerating with a constant deceleration of 2 ms–2 until it reaches the ground floor. a) sketch the velocity-time graph of the lift and use it to find t b) sketch the acceleration-time graph of the lift. 12 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 . Given that the man has descended 44 m.

Graphs solution 1 The distance travelled is given by the area under the graph. so 4 ( 21 × 4 × 4) + (4t ) + ( 21 × 4 × 4) = 44 4 t Time (s) The acceleration-time graph for the lift can then be sketched as follows: 13 of 37 8 + 4t + 4 = 44 4t = 32 t = 8 secs 2 Acceleration (ms–2) Velocity (ms–1) The velocity-time graph for the lift can be sketched as follows: 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (s) –1 –2 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .

The motorcycle overtakes the car after they have both travelled 3700 m.Graphs example 2 A car and a motorcycle are travelling along a straight road. Draw a speed-time graph and use it to find the time when the motorcycle overtakes the car and how long the car was initially accelerating for. The car accelerates from rest to a constant speed of 28 ms –1. The motorcycle is unaffected by the traffic and maintains his speed. The motorcycle accelerates from rest to a constant speed of 25 ms–1 in 10 seconds. 14 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 . After travelling for 90 seconds the car hits traffic and decelerates to a constant speed of 22 ms–1 in 5 seconds.

The motorbike overtakes the car after travelling 3700 m so.Velocity (ms–1) Graphs solution 2 t1 28 25 22 0 Motorbike Car 10 Time (s) 90 95 Let t1 be the time for which the motorbike is travelling with a constant speed before it overtakes the car. ( 21 ×10 × 25) + (t1 × 25) = 3700 125 + 25t1 = 3700 25t1 = 3575 t1 = 143 seconds 15 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .

Graphs solution 2 Velocity (ms–1) So the motorbike accelerates for 10 seconds and then travels at a constant speed for 143 seconds before overtaking the car. 28 25 22 0 t2 Motorbike Car 10 Time (s) 90 95 153 This area represents 3700 m 16 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .  The motorbike travels for 153 seconds before overtaking the car. Let t2 be the time for which the car is initially accelerating.

8 s (to 3 s.Graphs solution 2 Since the area under the graph for the car between 0 and 153 seconds is equal to 3700 so we can write. ( 21 × t2 × 28) + ((90  t2 )× 28) + ( 21 (22 + 28)× 5) + (58 × 22) = 3700 14t2 + 2520 – 28t2 + 125 + 1276 = 3700 14t2 = 221 t2 = 15.8 (to 3 sf) Therefore the car was initially accelerating for 15.f.) 17 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .

Contents Formulae for constant acceleration Motion graphs Formulae for constant acceleration Examination-style questions 18 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .

Formulae for constant acceleration If a particle is moving in a straight line with a constant acceleration then there are five equations of motion that can be used to determine missing quantities. 19 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 . 9. v = u + at s = 21 (u + v )t s = ut + 21 at 2 s = vt  21 at 2 v 2 = u 2 + 2as Where s = displacement in metres u = initial velocity in ms–1 v = final velocity in ms–1 a = acceleration in ms–2 t = time taken in seconds These are sometimes called the suvat formulae.8ms–2. For vertical motion acceleration due to gravity is g.

acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. v The constant acceleration a is therefore given by the gradient of the graph. Velocity (ms–1) By definition. So u vu t at = v – u a= t 20 of 37 Time (s) v = u + at © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .v = u + at The motion of an object with initial velocity u and final velocity v over time t can be illustrated using a velocity-time graph.

Velocity (ms–1) This distance is given by the area under the graph. v This area is a trapezium with parallel sides of length u and v and width t. So u s = 21 (u + v )t This can also be written as t 21 of 37 Time (s)  u + v s = t   2  © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .s = ½(u + v)t We can use the same graph to find the distance s travelled by an object with initial velocity u and final velocity v over time t.

s = ut + ½at2 distance travelled = area of rectangle A + area of triangle B = ut + 21 t (v  u ) vu a= so at = v – u t This gives us distance travelled = ut + 21 t ( at ) So 22 of 37 s = ut + 21 at 2 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .

s = vt – ½at2 distance travelled = area of rectangle C – area of triangle D = vt  21 t (v  u ) We have shown that at = v – u This gives us So 23 of 37 distance travelled = vt  21 t ( at ) s = vt  21 at 2 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .

v2 = u2 + 2as We can show that v2 = u2 + 2as as using 1 v = u + at  u + v s= t 2   2  Rearranging equation 1 to make t the subject gives (v  u ) t= a Substituting this into equation 2  u + v  v  u s =  a   2  2as = (u + v )(v  u ) 2as = v 2  u 2 So 24 of 37 v 2 = u 2 + 2as © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .

Find the maximum height above the ground that the stone reaches and find the time taken for the stone to reach the ground. and for t when s = –15.8) The question is asking for s when v = 0. 25 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .Constant acceleration example 1 A stone is thrown vertically upwards with a speed of 10 ms–1 from a point 15 m above the ground. Taking  to be positive. the information given in the question is: u = 10 a = –g (Take g to be 9.

6s = 100  s = 5.). 26 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .10 (to 3 s.8)(s)  0 = 100 – 19.f.) Therefore.1 m (to 3 s.6s 19. the maximum height above the ground that the stone reaches is 20.f. given u and a requires the use of v2 = u2 + 2as.Constant acceleration solution 1 To calculate s when v = 0. 02 = 102 + 2(–9.

05 s (to 3 s.05 or t = –1. 27 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .9t2 Arranging all the terms on the left gives us the following quadratic equation 4.) Therefore the stone reaches the ground after 3.01 (to 3 s.).8)t2  –15 = 10t – 4. –15 = 10t + 21 (–9.Constant acceleration solution 1 To calculate t when s = –15.9t2 –10t – 15 = 0 b  b 2  4ac Using gives the solution 2a t = 3.f.f. given u and a requires the use of s = ut + 21 at2.

Calculate the velocity at A and the distances AB and BC. via point B.Constant acceleration example 2 A particle moves in a horizontal line from a point A to a point C. 28 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 . This requires the use of v = u + at. We can sketch the situation as follows A B t=6 C t = 10 v = 50 Taking  to be positive the question firstly asks for u when a = 1. It has a constant acceleration of 1 ms –2 and passes point B after 6 seconds and point C after a further 4 seconds. t = 10 and v = 50. Its velocity at C is 50 ms–1.

a = 1 and t = 6. requiring the use of s = ut + 21 at2.Constant acceleration example 2 v = u + at 50 = u + (1)(10) 50 = u + 10  u = 40 Therefore the particle passes A with a velocity of 40 ms–1. s = ut + 21 at2 s = 40(6) + 21 (1)(6)2 s = 240 + 18 = 258 Therefore AB is 258m. 29 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 . The next part of the question asks for s when u = 40.

a = 1 and t = 10. 30 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .Constant acceleration example 2 The final part of the question asks for s when u = 40. s = ut + 21 at2 s = 40(10) + 21 (1)(10)2 s = 400 + 50 = 450 Therefore AC is 450 m and so BC is 192 m. again requiring the use of s = ut + 21 at2.

s = ut + 21 at2 1 s = (0)(3.2 seconds later.8 t = 3.2)2 s = 50.Constant acceleration example 3 A ball falls off a cliff and lands on the beach 3.2) + 2 (9.2 u=0 To calculate s requires the use of the formula s = ut + 21 at2.2 m (to 3 s.2 (to 3 s.) 31 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .f.f ) Therefore the height of the cliff is 50. How high is the cliff? Taking  to be positive the information given in the question is a = 9.8)(3.

Contents Examination-style questions Motion graphs Formulae for constant acceleration Examination-style questions 32 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .

Examination-style question 1 A ball is thrown vertically upwards with an initial velocity of ms–1 from a point 1.2 m above the ground. 33 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 u . It reaches a maximum height of 23 m above the ground. Calculate a) the initial velocity b) the velocity with which the ball strikes the ground c) the total time the ball is in the air.

8 v2 = u2 + 2as 0 = u2 + 2(-9. s = 23 v2 = u2 + 2as v2 = 02 + 2(9.2 (to 3 s.8)(23) v2 = 450.Using downward motion only Taking  to be positive.8 v = ± 21. u = 0. s = 21. a = 9.f.8.f.)  initial velocity is 20.f. v = 0.7ms–1 (to 3 s.8)(21.Solution 1 a) Taking  as positive. a = –9.) b) Method 1 .8) 0 = u2 – 427.28 (to 3 s.) 34 of 37  The ball hits ground with a velocity of 21.) © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .28 u = ±427.2 ms–1 (to 3 s.8.f.

u = –427.28 + 2(9.f.8 v = u + at (v  u ) t= a ( 450.8.8)(1. s = 1.28 s (to 3 s.) 35 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .28 (to 3 s.f.)  ball strikes ground with a velocity of 21.) c) Taking  as positive.28 ) t= 9.2 ms-1 (to 3 s.2) v2 = 450.28. v = 450.28.8 v =  21.8  427.f. a = 9. u = –427.8 t = 4.)  ball is in the air for 4.8.2 v2 = u2 + 2as v2 = 427.f.Solution 1 b) Method 2 – Using whole motion Taking  to be positive.2 (to 3 s. a = 9.

Examination-style question 2 A car is travelling with a uniform acceleration along a straight road. Find the velocity with which the car passes the mid-point of AB. It passes a point A with a velocity of 8 ms–1 and 5 seconds later it passes a point B with velocity 25 ms–1. v = 25. 36 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 . The distance AB needs to be found first: u = 8. t = 5 s = 21 (u + v)t 1 s = 2 (8 + 33)(5) s = 82.5  the distance AB is 82.25 m from A.5 m and so the mid-point of AB is at a distance of 41.

t = 5 (v  u )  a = v = u + at t (25  8) a= 5 a = 3.) 37 of 37 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 .5 v = ±344. a = 3.Solution 2 Acceleration now needs to be found: u = 8.4 ms–2.25) = 344.25 v2 = u2 + 2as v2 = 82 + 2(3.6 ms–1 (to 3 s.4)(41. s = 41.f.5  the car passes the mid-point of AB with a velocity of 18. v = 25. The velocity of the car as it passes the mid-point of AB can now be found: u = 8.4  the acceleration of the car is 3.4.