Linear Motion

Vectors vs Scalars
• Scalars are quantities that have a magnitude,
or numeric value which represents a size i.e.
14m or 76mph.
• Vectors are quantities which have a
magnitude and a direction, for instance 12m
to the right or 32mph east.

Describing how far you’ve gone • Distanced • Scalar • Standard units are meters • A measure of how far you have moved with respect to you (what a pedometer would measure) • Displacementd • Vector • Standard units are meters accompanied by direction. . • A measure of how far you are with respect to where you started (or change in position).

according to a pedometer has walked a total of 12m. That is the distance traveled.Distance vs Displacement • The person. . • The person walking starts where she stops. so her displacement is zero.

Measuring how fast you are going • Speedv • Scalar • Standard unit is m/s distance d v  time t • Velocityv • Vector • Standard unit is m/s. plus direction displacement d v  time t .

so v=0m/s . d=12m and t=4s. so v=3m/s • For velocity. d=0 and t=4s. what is her average speed and average velocity? • For speed.Velocity and Speed • If it take the person 4 seconds to walk around the square.

He travels the first 100km at a speed of 35m/s and the last 200km at 40m/s.Practice Problem • A boy takes a road trip from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. The distance between the two cities is 300km. What is his average speed? .

Practice Problem • A boy takes a road trip from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. He travels the first 100km at a speed of 35m/s and the last 200km at 40m/s. What is his average speed? . The distance between the two cities is 300km.

• All that’s needed is total displacement/distance and total time. . • What the speedometer in you car reads. • Instantaneous velocity • A value that summarizes the velocity or speed of something at a given instant in time.Different types of velocity and speed • Average velocity/speed • A value summarizing the average of the entire trip. • Can change from moment to moment.

• Units are m/s2 .Acceleration v v f  vi a  acceleration   t t  delta. • Means “change in” and is calculated by subtracting the initial value from the final value. • Either hitting the gas or hitting the break counts as acceleration. • Change in velocity over time.

• We use vector quantities.Using linear motion equations • We always assume that acceleration is constant. . not scalar quantities. • We always use instantaneous velocities. not average velocities • Direction of a vector is indicated by sign. Incorrect use of signs will result in incorrect answers.

8s. How fast is it going at the end of the acceleration? First step is identifying the variables in the equation and listing them. .Practice Problem A car going 15m/s accelerates at 5m/s 2 for 3.

8s vi=15m/s a=5m/s2 vf=? .Practice Problem A car going 15m/s accelerates at 5m/s2 for 3.8s. How fast is it going at the end of the acceleration? t=3.

how long does it take to get to the bottom? . and accelerates at a rate of 7.6m/s2.Practice Problem 2 • A penguin slides down a glacier starting from rest. If it reaches the bottom of the hill going 15m/s.

and accelerates at a rate of 7. how long does it take to get to the bottom? .Practice Problem 2 • A penguin slides down a glacier starting from rest. If it reaches the bottom of the hill going 15m/s.6m/s2.

Equation for displacement d v t d  vt v  1  vi  v f  2 d  1  vi  v f t 2 .

45m/s pace. How far does it travel in that time? • A cyclist speeds up from his 8.2s. As he accelerates. he goes 325m in 30s. What is his final velocity? .Practice Problems • A car slows from 45 m/s to 30m/s over 6.

Equation that doesn’t require vf d  1  vi  v f  t 2 v f  vi  at d  1  vi  vi  at  t 2 d  1 t (2vi  at ) 2 2 1 d  vi t  at 2 .

If it is rolling at 50m/s initially.64m/s2 and it travels 162m in 3s.Practice Problems A ball rolling up a hill accelerates at –5.3s. how fast was it going initially? . how far has it rolled? If a car decelerates at a rate of –4.6m/s2 for 6.

An equation not needing t v f  vi  at d  1  vi  v f t 2 v f  vi  at v f  vi a t  v f  vi  1   d vi  v f  2 a    v 2f  vi2  d1  2  a 2ad  v 2f  vi2    .

What is the acceleration? .v  v  2ad 2 f 2 i A bowling ball is thrown at a speed of 6. By the time it hits the pins 63m away.2m/s. it is going 5.8m/s.

The Big 4 v f  vi  at v  v  2ad 2 1 d at  vi t 2 d  1  vi  v f t 2 2 f 2 i .

• Differences in falling speed/acceleration are due to air resistance. . consider final velocity before the object hits the grounds. • All objects have the same acceleration due to gravity.8m/s2 • When analyzing a falling object. not differences in gravity.Gravity • Gravity causes an acceleration. • g=-9.

• Determine what is being asked for and write down with a questions mark. • Fill in the known values and solve equation . • Solve the selected equation for the unknown. • Select an equation that uses the variables (known and unknown) you are dealing with and nothing else.Problem Solving Steps • Identify givens in a problem and write them down.

Hidden Variables • Objects falling through space can be assumed to accelerate at a rate of –9. • Dropped objects have no initial velocity. . • Starting from rest corresponds to a v i=0 • A change in direction indicates that at some point v=0.8m/s2.

8m/s2 . How far has it traveled when it reaches the top of its path and how long does it take to get there? vi=5m/s d=? vf=0m/s t=? a=g=-9.Practice Problem • A ball is thrown upward at a speed of 5m/s.

What is its acceleration? b.A plane slows on a runway from 207km/hr to 35km/hr in about 527m. a. How long does it take? .

will he be able to stop in time to avoid hitting the cow? .A train engineer notices a cow on the track when he is going 40.4m/s 2 and the cow is 500m away.7m/s. If he can decelerate at a rate of -1.

4s) determine the slope of the entire line pointing in the same direction. • If looking for a slope at a specific point (i. That will be the same as the slope of a specific point.e.Displacement (Position) vs. or displacement can be determined simply by reading the graph. • Velocity is determined by the slope of the graph (slope equation will give units of m/s). Time Graphs • Position. What is the velocity of the object at 4 seconds? .