FUNCTIONAL

ANATOMY
OF TMJ
PART 1

CONTENTS
• Introduction
• Types of joint
• Development of TMJ
• Mandibular fossa
• Condyle
• Articular disc
• Histology of articular surfaces
• Innervation of TMJ
• Vascularization of TMJ
• Ligaments
• Muscles of mastication
• Biomechanics
• Conclusion
• References

INTRODUCTION
• The Temporomandibular joint
is that which connects the
mandible to the skull and
regulates mandibular
movement.
• It is a bicondylar joint in
which the condyles, located at
the two ends of the mandible,
function at the same time.

TYPES OF JOINT
A Joint is an articulation
between two bones.
1. Fibrous Joint:
immovable joint
• Suture - skull
• Gomphosis - teeth
• Syndesmosis – interosseous

2.Cartilaginous Joint:
limited movement
• Primary or synchondroses
• Hyaline cartilage at ends of
long bones
• Secondary or symphysis
• Bone-cartilage-fibrous tissuecartilage-bone; symphysis
menti

3.Synovial Joint: permits free movement
between two bones; surrounded by capsule
enclosing joint cavity filled with synovial
fluid. According to shape of articulating
surface:



Ginglymoid
Pivot
Condyloid
Ball-and-socket

Craniomandibular articulation – TMJ
Complex joint in the body
Hinging movement – ginglymoid joint
Gliding movements - arthrodial joint

ginglymoarthrodial joint
hence TMJ is a complex diarthrodial slidingginglymoid synovial joint, which attaches the mandible
to petrous part of temporal bone of the cranium.

Seperating these two
bones from direct
articulation is the
Articular disc.
TMJ – Classified as
Compound joint
articular disc – serve
as non ossified bone
that permits
complex movements
of the joint.

Artricular disc
interposed between the
condyle of the mandible
and the glenoid fossa of
the temporal bone.
The articular surface
of the temporal bone
has a
posterior concave part
– mandibular fossa
Anterior convex part –
articular tubercle or
eminence

DEVELOPMENT OF TMJ
• The
TMJ
develops
from
mesenchyme
lying between the
developing
mandibular
condyle
below and the bone
above, which develop
intramembranously.
• During the 12th week
of IU life ,2 clefts
appear
in
the
mesenchyme

• The remaining intervening mesenchyme
becomes the intra – articular disc.
• The joint capsule develops from a
condensation of mesenchyme surrounding
the developing joint
• Mandibular fossa is flat at birth and there is
no articular eminence , this becomes
prominent only following the eruption of
the decidous dentition.

MANDIBULAR FOSSA
Bounderies• Anterior
aspect
articular eminence
• Posterior
non
articular fossa Is a
part
of
temporal
squama
and
is
formed by tympanic
plate
which
also
forms the anterior
bony wall of external
auditory meatus

• As temporal squama and tympanic
plate converge medially on the spine
of the sphenoid bone – intersposed is
the bony edge of the roof of the
tympanic cavity –tegmen tympani

• Squamotympannic fissure - fissure between
the temporal squama and tympannic bone
• It is divided medially into anterior part
-petrosquamous fissure and posterior part
petrotympannic fissure/glaserian fissure.
• Laterally petrotympannic fissure allows
passage of chorda tympani nerve.
• At the posterior border of the fossa – a
tubercle or cone shaped process present
laterally between tympanic bone and fossa.
• This prevents direct impingement of
condyle on the tympanic plate.

• the medial border of articular fossa also
contains a bony lip which extends into
angular spine of sphenoid bone .
• These two bone processes or lips limit
condylar displacement distally and laterally
as well as vertically.

A IKAI et al (ajodo 112;634:8)
• Studied the relationship between temporal
component of TMJ – mandibular fossa and
articular eminence) with facial bone
structure.
• The angle between the line deepest point
of the fossa- the midpoint of the eminence
and FH plane (middle angle) was
negatively correlated only with ANB angle
suggesting that a steeper middle angle of
eminence is related to retrusive maxilla or
protrussive mandible.

CONDYLE
Barrel shape –
measuring –
20mm –
mediolateral
10mm
– anteroposterior
• Perpendicular to
ascending ramus
of the mandible
• Oriented 10 – 30
degrees with
frontal plane.

Medial pole more
prominent than
lateral pole

Articular surface
of Posterior
aspect >
anterior aspect

• In the frontal view – articular eminence
often is concave and fits roughly to
superior surface of condyle
• Bony surface of condyle and articular part
of the temporal bone – covered with dense
fibrous connective tissues with irregular
cartilage like cells
• The number of cells increases with age and
stress on the joint.

ARTICULAR DISC
• Biconcave
oval
structure –intersposed
between the condyle
and
the
temporal
bone.
• Consists
of
dense
collagenous
tissue
that is avascular ,
hyaline and devoid of
nerve tissues in the
central area but has
vessels and nerves in

• Divided into 3
regions in the
Saggital plane
• Intermediate zone
• Posterior
• Anterior
• Articular surface
situated in the
intermediate zone

Anterior view – disc
thicker medially than
laterally
Shape of disc –
determined
by
morphology of condyle
and mandibular fossa.

• During movement the
disc is flexible to some
extent and can adapt to
the functional demands
of the articular surfaces.
• The disc maintains its
morphology
unless
destructive
forces
or
structural changes occur
in the joint.
• If these changes occur ,
the morphology of the
disc can be irreversibly
altered
producing
biomechanical changes

• ATTACHMENTS OF DISC • Retrodiscal tissue attachment
vascularized

posterior
highly

• Superior retrodiscal lamina –

elastic fibres

• Inferior retrodiscal lamina - collagenous
fibres.
• Remaining – large venous plexus which fills
with blood as condyle moves forward.

Anteriorly–superior and inferior
attachments of the disc– capsular ligament
• Superior attachment –articular surface of
temporal bone
• Inferior attachment – articular surface of
condyle
• Composed of collagen fibres
• Between the capsular ligament attachment –
superior lateral pterygoid muscles.