TOPIC ONE: INTRODUCTION TO

GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
MUHAMMAD KHAIRUL ARIF
FATIN NABIHAH

BRIEF HISTORY OF GUIDANCE
AND COUNSELING

BRIEF HISTORY OF GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELING
• Guidance and counseling is a new field in
science.
• Counseling revolved with the work from
Sigmund Freud and few more analyst that
have done the research about human
emotion.
• Finally, a few famous names such as Albert
Ellis, Eric Berne, William Glasser and Carl
Rogers came out with their views and
perspectives of guidance and counseling.

CRONOLOGY OF GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELING DEVELOPMENT IN
AMERICA.

• World War II had given a great impact on
the development of counseling.
• In the late 1940s and 1950s, counseling
had grabbed the social attention as the
counselors start giving treatments to the
community as the country is restoring from
the war.
• Guidance and counseling have become a
major profession besides doctors, architect
and builders.

FULL CHRONOLOGY OF GUIDANCE
AND COUNSELING IN AMERICA
1900s
Sigmund
Freud came
out with the
Psychoanal
ysis Theory

Before
1900s
Counseling
is viewed
as giving
advises

1910s
National
Vocational
Guidance
Association
was
established

1960s
Abraham
Maslow
Came out
with his
Humanistic
Counseling
Theory

1960s
Abraham
Maslow
Came out
with his
Humanistic
Counseling
Theory

INTRODUCTION TO
GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

INTRODUCTION
• Guidance & counseling are essential
elements of every educational
activity.
• Guidance & counseling are not two
similar terms. Counseling is a part of
guidance.
• Guidance, in educational context,
means to indicate, point out, show
the way, lead out & to direct.

• Counseling is a specialized service of
guidance.
• It is the process of helping individuals
learn more about themselves, their
present & possible future situations
to make a change and contribution to
the society.

DEFINITION OF GUIDANCE
• Guidance: the act of giving advices
or guidance to others

Crow and Crow (1983 ) ; Education help or assistance given to students
who is in need.

DEFINITION OF COUNSELLING

Shertzer and Stone (1968 ) ; The process
of interaction that allow individuals to
understand themselves and the situation
• Arbuckle (1965 ) ; counseling is not
intended to help clients adapt to the
social environment, but to help people
understand the advantages ,
disadvantages and potential

CONCEPT OF GUIDANCE
AND COUNSELING

CONCEPT OF GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELING
Normal Teacher

Guidance and
Counseling teacher


do not get specialized
receive special
training in guidance and training in guidance
counseling .
and counseling .

DIFFERENCE OF GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELING
Guidance
• Everyone can give
guidance .
• In counseling there
is counseling .
• Guidance for all .
• Occurs in
anywhere .

Counseling
• Theory and
application of
knowledge.
• There is a special
room .
•Face meetings
between counselor and
client .
•Qualified counselor /
license / attend B & K.

PURPOSES OF GUIDANCE
AND COUNSELING

Efficient use
of
capabilities
and talent

Helps in
overall
developme
nt and live
productive
life

PURPOSES
OF
GUIDANCE
AND
CONSELLIN
G

Balance
individual
developme
nt
holistically
Eg;JERIS

Promote
optimal
personal
and
professional
developme
nt

Promote optimal personal and
professional development
• Personal development includes
the physical and psychological
growth of a student.
• Eg; school counselor will give
Aptitude test to determine the
students psychological
condition, and give
support/recommendation if the
student ask for one.
• Student with disciplinary
problem also have to go
through series of counseling so
they will get the solution to
their problems.

Balance individual development
holistically

• A student should be able to balance their development.
• This is where the IQ and EQ were tested and consulted.
• Eg, a student who excel in sports and co-curricular
should balance their achievements in academic too
• Counselor will have to suggest few ways to overcome
the problem, such as introducing the applicable
timetable to the students.

Helps in overall development and
live productive life
• Students which are
not living a
productive life can
consult a school
counselor in order to
do so.
• The school counselor
will have several
approaches which can
be applied in order
for the students to
change their lifestyle.
• Eg, An anti-social
student can be more
social and involved in
other activities
outside classroom

PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE
AND COUNSELING

CHANCES
• Every student who that has a
problem should be given the
opportunity to receive guidance and
counseling services , regardless of
race , social status , background and
religion or belief .

JOINT RESPONSIBILITY
• Guidance and Counseling Services is
a joint responsibility , that
cooperation must exist not only
between counselors and students
who need guidance , but also
between the counselor and the
school as peers and parents
concerned.

PROCEDURAL AND PLANNED
• Counselling services should be dealt
with according to the procedures and
rules or procedures as prescribed . It
becomes effective when planned
systematically and regularly

FRIENDLY RELATIONSHIP AND
TRUST
• Counseling is interaction between
counselors and students based on
the principles of friendly relations,
trust , sincerity and honesty to
clients

CANNOT BE FORCED
• Guidance and Counselling Service
can only be given to students who
are willing to be willing to accept it
and not be forced , including
choosing a discussion .

CARRIED OUT IN A SPECIAL ROOM
• A counseling session can only be
conducted between counselor and
client in a specially prepared room .

CARRIED OUT ACCORDING TO THE
ETHICS
• Counselling should be managed in
accordance with its ethics , in order
to preserve the rights of students.
Any student information is
considered confidential and may only
be disclosed to parties with help only
with the consent of the client .

CARRIED OUT CONFIDENTIALLY
• Counselling should be conducted in a
situation alone between counselors
and students only. All matters
discussed should be kept
confidential.

PLANNED FOR FOLLOW UPS
• Follow-up should be planned after
the Guidance and Counselling
services in order to ensure the
problems encountered , be it
academic , social or emotional , will
not be renewed .

MANAGED BY QUALIFIED
COUNSELOR
• Guidance and Counselling Service
can only be managed by a qualified
counselor or guidance of trained
teachers , people who are skilled and
able to guide the client itself solve
the problem of academic or personal
problems

IMPORTANCE OF GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELLING IN EDUCATION









To help nursing students in establishing proper identity.
To help them to develop a positive attitude towards life.
To help to overcome periods of turmoil & confusion.
To help students in developing their leadership qualities.
To motivate them for taking membership in professional
organizations after competing their studies.
Helps them to make advantages of technological
advancement in a patient care.
Helps them to readiness for changes & face challenges
To carryout responsibilities as a health team member
Helps them to proper selection of career
Motivate them for higher studies.

To help nursing students in establishing proper
identity.
APTIS test,personality test

To help them to develop a positive attitude
towards
life.
Encouraging camps held
Motivational speech
during summer break

To help to overcome periods of turmoil &
confusion.

Explaination and introduction
to the growth phases in their
lives

Giving psychological support
according to the students
needs

To help students in developing their
leadership
qualities
Boosts leadership
qualities
with giving
responsibilities towards simple programmes
or activities in school

To motivate them for taking membership in
professional organizations after competing
their studies.

Career support

Career suggesting

Helps them to proper selection
Career
of
career
Career
counseling

compatibility
test

Motivate them for higher
studies.
speeches

talks

REFERENCES
• Ahmad, I. (2002). Perkhidmatan Bimbingan Dan
Kaunseling Di Sekolah Rendah. Cheras, Kuala
Lumpur: Utusan Publication & Distributors Sdn
Bhd.
• Mizan Adillah Ahmad Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Fazrul
Azdi Wan Razali, Hanit Osman. (2012).
Kaunseling Dalam Islam. Bandar Baru Nilai,
Negeri Sembilan: Universiti Islam Malaysia.
• Sapora Sipon, Hapsah Yusof. (2013). Pengenalan
Kepada Profesion Kaunseling. Bandar Baru Nilai,
Negeri Sembilan: Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia.