GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING

FOR CHILDREN
(EDU3073)
TOPIC 2
GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
SERVICES
Prepared by:
DINA SYAFIQA ANNUR BINTI
AZHAR
NUR FATNIN IZNI BINTI

TYPES OF GUIDANCE
SERVICES
■ Guidance

Teacher as a guidance to help students in school to understand themselves
Comprises of various areas (academic, co-curriculum, attitude)

■ Counselling
– A systematic process to help students to achieve a change of development
conducted by school counsellor
– Eg: Academic and career counselling
■ Career guidance
– The exposure of career information
■ Family or parents conference
– a short meeting or conference between the parents and teachers of
students to discuss children's progress at school
– Eg: PIBG

TYPES OF COUNSELLING
Individual
counselling
Types of
counselling
Group
counselling

Academic
counselling
Career
counselling

INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING

INDIVIDUAL
COUNSELLING

Tailored to an individual - advice, strategy or planning
designed for a singular person and their unique situation.

Discussions between the counsellor and his client in where he
tries to help his client understand themselves, accept the
problems faced and help him overcome problems in life.
(Cottle & Downie, 1970)

TYPES OF INDIVIDUAL
COUNSELLING

1. Academic counselling

■ Providing counselling in order to help clients choose the subjects, in line
with their interests, abilities and achievements.
■ In addition, academic counselling also conveys the information about
opportunities to further studies at higher learning institutions both in the
country or abroad

2. Career Counselling
■ To help clients obtain career information in line with their interests,
talents, abilities and academic achievement.
■ According to Holland in Gibson and Mitchell (1981), individuals would
work in an environment related to their interests and suitability – give
employees greater satisfaction

INDIVIDUAL
COUNSELLING PHASE
Building relationship

Exploration/ development

Problem identifying

Discussing alternatives

Results and termination

1. Building Relationship
■ More of an introductory session – get to know their clients better.
■ Give clients confidence, make clients comfortable and not embarrassed to
tell her problems.
■ The counsellor should play a role to stimulate clients to share and
continue the interview sessions with specific questions.
■ In this phase the counsellor needs to build rapport with clients, show
interest and empathy.

2. Exploration &
Development
■ Questions designed to guide the discussion and counsellors should listen
actively.
■ To explore clients' real problems and make analysis of each client's
response when answering questions. (reflecting feelings and encourage
clients to speak and express their opinions)

3. Identifying Problem
■ Counsellors need to identify the main problems.
■ Counsellors should interpret problems and try to talk with clients - no bias
and blaming to the client.
■ Counsellors need to assist clients in addressing their problems.

4. Discussing Alternatives
■ The counsellor with clients discuss and formulate strategies to enable
clients to handle or cope with their problems.
■ Counsellor’s role is to assist clients in reviewing potential probability of
success and obstacles encountered in implementing the plan.
■ Counsellors can also provide guidance in overcoming the difficulties
faced by the client.

5. Results And Termination
■ Done through discussion.
■ Making the best choice for addressing or solving the problem
■ The termination is made in two ways

the termination of each counselling session conducted at the end of the session
(there are a few more session)

stop the termination by mutual consent and if the client is completely recovered.

PURPOSE OF
INDIVIDUAL
COUNSELLING

■ Establishing a good relationship between the client
■ Develop self understanding

■ Teach them decision making – make good choices – solve conflicts
■ Give students the opportunity to discuss their concerns
■ Build self confidence and esteem
■ Mending good behaviour

GROUP COUNSELLING

GROUP COUNSELLING
■ Orientation and recovery of the problems to rationalize every pupil in
accordance with the requirements of the group.

(Carl Rogers, 1970)

■ Group counselling involves individuals who are having difficulties they
wish to resolve (personal, educational, social).
(Corey & Corey, 1992)

■ A form of therapy where people with similar experiences/issues come
together with a professional therapist.

GROUP COUNSELLING
PHASE
Orientation

Conflict and confrontation

Development and integration

Results

Termination

1. Orientation
■ Group leader or counsellor will introduce himself and followed by other
group members. (Name, interests, etc…)
■ The role of the counsellor – encourage the participation of each member.
■ Creating fun interaction – facilitate members to express opinions or ask
something

Counsellor acts as a facilitator:
■ Help members make up the rules
■ Encourage them to be opened
■ Help them to identify concrete personal problems
■ Encourage them to share the hopes and expectations of each

2. Conflict and Confrontation
■ Boredom, impatience and being egocentric towards the ideas from the
other members happen during the session.
■ Recrimination worsen as a result of misunderstanding
■ The members still nervous, hesitant and feel insecure – some would
withdraw, blaming others and humility

Some signs of conflict stages:
■ Members began to dispute, then condemn and criticize other members
■ Members who want to leave the group by trying to influence others.
■ Members feel that they are less heard and less supported.
■ Members believe that the group is unhelpful
■ Members are less willing to participate, come late, are not present and refuse to
talk

3. Development and
Integration
■ There is an atmosphere of cordiality and mutual trust
■ Members of the group begin to feel comfortable and can interact more
openly among themselves
■ Group identity created
■ Members are able to express opinion honestly and openly

According to Corey in the Means (2006), during this phase:
■ Interaction is more free and straightforward
■ The members feel less threatened
■ Members of the group feel that they are one of the group members
■ The existence of empathy, honesty, sincerity, acceptance, affection - more mature
group
■ Feedback from the other members, either accepted or rejected, can be discussed
without feeling defensive or discouraged

4. Results
■ The forming of solid and strong relationship
■ Members trust each other and are willing to be criticized
■ Members are satisfied with the sessions and show excitement

5. Termination
■ Individuals obtain satisfaction
■ They can compliment each other
■ They are more prepared to face the reality

THE IMPORTANCE OF
GROUP COUNSELLING

■ Acquiring social skills while interacting with members of the group

■ Clients are able to understand the similarities and differences among the
members of the group and able to share ideas.
■ Brilliant and thoughtful ideas can be shared successfully
■ More confident about their own perceptions
■ Establishing good cooperation skill

Differences between individual
counselling and group counselling
INDIVIDUAL

GROUP

Limited therapeutic process between a
counsellor and a client

The therapeutic process between a counsellor
with a number of clients in the group

Guidance received – one way even though the
communication occurred is in two ways of
interaction

Multilateral communication

The function of the counsellor is unchanged

The function of the counsellor are changed
depending on the clients

Easier to build an atmosphere of comfort and
trust

Quite difficult to build the atmosphere of
comfort and trust

Whole session is devoted to the client’s
concerns and goals only – sought the views of
the counsellor

Clients can observe the behaviour of the
problem solving process as well as the
handling of problem solving by other clients.

Counsellor can give his full attention to his
client

Attention had to be divided

COUNSELLING ETHICS
The concept of ethical standards in counselling is mentioned to
indicate that there are indeed certain ways of doing things
counselling ways which are in line with what is expected of a
professional person on the job.
What a counsellor says and does in counselling should be fully
in line in the provision of the law.
A practicing counsellor is required to see that all his behaviour
within the context of counselling functions are in line with the
ethical standards of the profession.

COUNSELLING ETHICS
■ Prioritizing the needs of the client more than the counsellor own needs
■ Client’s right approval (hak persetujuan klien)

Counsellors protect the rights of their clients including the right to informed consent.

■ Client’s ethics confidentiality (etika kerahsiaan klien)

Counsellors respect the privacy of their clients and preserve the confidentiality of information
acquired in the course of their work.

Privilege communication (komunikasi hak istimewa)

Obtain confidential information from a client only when it is beneficial to the counselling
process

REFERENCES
Gladding, S. (2009) Counseling: A comprehensive profession. (6th ed.) New Jersey: Pearson
Education International.
Idham, S. (2016, January 7). Peringkat Proses Kaunseling . Retrieved from Saleha Idham
Blogspot: http://salehaidham.blogspot.my/2010/03/peringkat-proses-kaunseling.html
Proses Kelompok Kaunseling. (2016, January 6). Retrieved from Academia Education:
https://www.academia.edu/6279566/PROSES_KELOMPOK_KAUNSELING
Ridzuan, M. (2016, January 6). Bimbingan dan Kaunseling Kanak-kanak. Retrieved from
Academia Education: https://www.academia.edu/8187706/Cg_Mohd_Ridzuan_alKindy_EDU3107_BIMBINGAN_DAN_KAUNSELING_KANAKKANAK_TOPIK_1_BIMBINGAN_DAN_KAUNSELING
Types of Therapy. (2016, January 6). Retrieved from Reach Out: http://ie.reachout.com/getting-help/face-to
face-help/types-of-therapy/group-counselling/