COUNSELING

THEORIES
TOPIC 4 (EDU3073)

BEHAVIOURIS THEORY

Human Natural Behaviour

Main Concept / Purpose

Techniques / Process

• Attitudes, habits, behavior
is determined by the
behavior of person
• Personality development
is determined by
experience, the
interaction of individuals
and the environment
• Individuals vary due to
different experiences.
Behavior is influenced by
environmental stimuli
• Individual personalities
are formed due to the
reinforcement received
either + ve / -ve.

• A behavior can be
emulated by observation
and reinforcement
• This theory provides an
environment in which all
unsuitable behavior can
be eliminated and guide
clients to master
appropriate new
behaviors to replace
unsuitable behavior

Proses
Define problem
Know the background
State the goals
Strategy in changing
behaviour

Purpose
• Maladaptive behavior can
be eliminated and client
will learn to master
appropriate new
behaviors

Technique
Systematic Desensitization
Imaginal flooding
System token

Counselor Role
• Counsellors need to accept
unconditionally
• Pay attention to the behavior
of the client
• Understanding the client

Client Role
• Play an active role
• Clients can experience directly

PERSON CENTERED THEORY
(Humanistic)

Human Natural Behaviour

Main Concept/Purpose

• Humans are good and
reliable
• Human credible on the
basis of the positive
• Human behavior resulting
from the individual self.
He himself made the
choice behavior

• Psychological concept of
humanity (humanistic)
• Give a therapeutic
environment for clients to
feel himself

Technique/Process

Technique
Focus on the ability to build
a relationship counselor
facilitates:
• reflection of feelings
• Encourage clients to
Purpose
share the problem
• Clients will be more
• Counsellor position of
realistic, objective, and
responsibility in every
more accurate and more
action, thought and make
effective in its response in
decisions
solving the problem.
Process
• Counselors explain what
happens in a counseling
session
• Counsellors help clients
express feelings
• Clients understand the
choices available and
counselors help clients

Counselor Role
• Encourage expression of
feelings that lead to
insight.
• Treat clients equally with
counselor
• Create a therapeutic
environment

Client Role
• Clients need to express
themselves orally
• Volunteer
• Clients feel more open

Albert Ellis (19132007)

RATIONAL EMOTIVE THERAPY
By Abdul Wafi bin Abd. Halim

• Proposed by Albert Ellis in 1995.
• He believed, the therapist sought to help the client understand and act on the
understanding.
• This approach stressed actively working to change a client's self-defeating beliefs
and behaviours by demonstrating their irrationality, self-defeatism and rigidity.
• He believed, through rationalanalysis and cognitive reconstruction, people could
understand their self-defeatingness in light of their core irrational beliefs and
then develop more rational constructs.
• Ellis’s A-B-C model is the basis of his personality theory.

RATIONAL EMOTIVE THERAPY
VIEWPOINTS
• Rationality:
Thinking, feeling, and acting in ways that will help individuals attain
their goals. This is in contrast to irrationality in which thinking,
feeling and acting are self-defeating and interfere with goal
attainment.
• Being vulnerable to emotional disturbance for both social and
biological reasons is a core view of Ellis. Although individuals desire
to be successful and happy, many irrational beliefs interfere with
these goals.

A-B-C THEORY OF
PERSONALITY

A – ACTIVATING EVENT
B – BELIEF SYSTEM
C – CONSEQUENCES

• The A-B-C model refers to what happens when an activating
event (A) leads to emotional and behavioral consequences (C).
• The emotional and behavioral consequences are not caused
by (A) the activating event but by the individual’s belief
system (B).
• Irrational beliefs occur when the activating event (A) is an
unpleasant one.
• Irrational beliefs (B) can then partly cause difficult emotional
and behavioral consequences (C).

• According to Ellis, it is bad enough that individuals have
irrational beliefs, but they turn these beliefs into new
activating events which cause new irrational beliefs.
• Ellis refers to this as disturbances about disturbances.

Disturbances about
Disturbances
• Musterbation: Albert Ellis’s phrase to characterize the
behavior of clients who are inflexible and absolutistic in
their thinking, maintaining that they must not fail or
that they must have their way.
• Low frustration tolerance: Inability or difficulty in
dealing with events or situations that do not go as
planned, for example, getting very angry because
someone does not do as you ask.

RATIONAL EMOTIVE THEORY OF
PSYCHOTHERAPY

• The A-B-C theory of personality affects the way RET
therapists determine goals for their clients, assess their
clients, and select therapeutic techniques. Disputing
irrational beliefs is a most important therapeutic
intervention .

Objectives of Therapy
• A general goal of RET is to help clients minimize emotional
disturbances, decrease self-defeating behaviors, and become
happier.
• If individuals can think rationally and have fewer irrational
beliefs, Ellis believes they will live happier lives.
• RET teaches clients how to deal with negative feelings such as
sorrow, regret, frustration, depression, and anxiety.
• Virtually all client problems are viewed from the perspective of
the contribution of their irrational beliefs.

ASSESSMENT
• RET therapists try to assess which thoughts and
behaviors create problems for their clients.
• They may listen for themes that repeat themselves.
• Identifying activating events (A), rational and irrational
beliefs (B), and emotional and behavioral consequences
(C) is the most basic form of assessment in RET.
• This assessment continues in each session and is not
limited to the first few sessions.

Counselor/client Relationship
• Rational-emotive therapists do not believe a warm relationship
between counselee and counselor is a necessary or a sufficient
condition for effective personality change.
• REBT therapists fully accept clients as fallible humans without
necessarily giving personal warmth.
• To keep clients from becoming unduly dependent, REBT
therapists deliberately use hardheaded methods of convincing
clients that they had damned well better resort to more selfdiscipline.

THE A-B-C-D-E THERAPEUTIC APPROACH

• D are three parts of disputation. When irrational beliefs
are disputed, the client will experience E, a new effect.
In essences, the client will have a logical philosophy
that allows her to challenge her own irrational beliefs.

A (activating Event)
• Therapists often divide activating events into two parts:
• 1)what happened and
• 2)what the patient perceived happened.

• Typically, therapists focus only on a few activating
events at a time.
• Sometimes previous consequences (C) become
activating events.

B (Beliefs):
• Irrational or self-defeating beliefs, rather than selfhelping beliefs, are the focus of therapy.
• Changing irrational beliefs can change consequences.

C (Consequences):
• Sometimes it is difficult for therapists to distinguish
between consequences and beliefs.
• Consequences tend to be feelings such as “I feel so
stressed out.”
• Feelings cannot be disputed, but beliefs that bring about
feelings can.
• Changing beliefs (B) can alter consequences (C).

D (Disputing)
• Disputing irrational beliefs is the major therapeutic
technique in RET.

Disputing is often done in three parts.

1. Detecting – the client and therapist detect the
irrational beliefs that underlie activating events.

2). Discriminating – the therapist and client
discriminate irrational from rational beliefs.

3). Accepting 1 and 2, knowing that insight does not
automatically change people, and working hard to
effect change.

E (Effect):
• Developing an effective philosophy in which irrational
beliefs have been replaced by rational beliefs is the
product of successful RET.

Emotive Techniques Used
• Imagery
• Role-playing
• Shame-attacking exercises
• Forceful self-statements
• Forceful self-dialogue

Behavioral Techniques Used
• Activity Homework
• Reinforcements & penalities
• Skill Training

COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY

Cognitive Therapy is based on the premise that what
we think affects our emotions, what we choose to do
or avoid, and our physiological reactions. 

Characteristics of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies:

1. Thoughts cause Feelings and Behaviors.
2. Brief and Time-Limited.
3. Emphasis placed on current behavior.

4. CBT is a collaborative effort between the therapist and the client.
Client role - define goals, express concerns,
implement learning

learn &

Therapist role - help client define goals, listen,
teach,encourage.

5. Teaches the benefit of remaining calm or at least neutral
when faced with difficult situations. (If you are upset by
your problems, you now have 2 problems: 1) the problem,
and 2) your upsetness.

6. Based on "rational thought." - Fact not assumptions.
7. CBT is structured and directive. Based on notion that maladaptive
behaviors are the result of skill deficits.
8. Based on assumption that most emotional and behavioral reactions
are learned. Therefore, the goal of therapy is to help clients unlearn
their unwanted reactions and to learn a new way of reacting.
9. Homework is a central feature of CBT.

CBT effective for use with

● Self / Personal Growth
● Individual Clients
● Groups
● Marriage / relationships
● Family
● Workplace
● Varying Intellectual ability/learning impairments

REFERENCES
• Ahmad, I. (2002). Perkhidmatan Bimbingan Dan
Kaunseling Di Sekolah Rendah. Cheras, Kuala Lumpur:
Utusan Publication & Distributors Sdn Bhd.
• Mizan Adillah Ahmad Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Fazrul Azdi
Wan Razali, Hanit Osman. (2012). Kaunseling Dalam
Islam. Bandar Baru Nilai, Negeri Sembilan: Universiti
Islam Malaysia.
• Sapora Sipon, Hapsah Yusof. (2013). Pengenalan Kepada
Profesion Kaunseling. Bandar Baru Nilai, Negeri
Sembilan: Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia.