FUNCTIONAL

ANATOMY
OF TMJ
PART 3

• When the ligament is taut , the neck of the
condyle cannot rotate further .
• If mouth were to be opened wider- the
condyle has to move downward and
forward across the articular eminence.
• Clinically tested by – closing the mouth and
applying mild posterior force to the chinjaw easily rotates until teeth are 20 –
25mm apart after which a resistance is felt
when the jaw is opened wider.
• This resistance is brought about by the
tightening of TM ligament.

This unique feature of TM ligament which
limits rotational opening is found only in
humans.

• The inner horizontal portion of TM ligament
limits posterior movement of condyle and
disc.
• When force applied to the mandible it
displaces the condyle posteriorly , this
portion of ligament becomes tight and
prevents the condyle from moving further
into the posterior region of the mandibular
fossa.

• Hence it protects the retrodiscal tissues
from trauma created by posterior
displacement of the condyle.
• Also protects the lateral pterygoid muscle
from overextension or overlengthening.
• The effectiveness of TM ligament is
demonstrated during cases of extreme
trauma to the mandible.
• In such cases the neck of the condyle is
seen to fracture before the retrodiscal
tissues are severed.

• Sphenomandibular
ligament
• Accesory ligament of the
TMJ
• Arises from the spine of the
sphenoid bone and extends
downwards to a small bone
prominence on the medial
surface of the ramus of the
mandible called the lingula.
• It does not have any
significant limiting effects
on mandibular movement.

• Stylomandibular ligament
• It arises from the styloid
process and extends
downwards and forward to
the angle and posterior
border of the ramus of the
mandible.
• It becomes taut when the
mandible is protruded but is
most relaxed when the
mandible is opened.
• The stylomandibular
ligament therefore limits the
excessive protrusive
movements of the mandible.

MUSCLES OF MASTICATION
The skeletal components of the body are held
together and moved by the skeletal muscles.
• Muscles

fibers ranging between 10 – 80mm

subunits
According to amount of myoglobin
Muscles

slow/type1 muscle fibers
fast/type ll fibers.

• Slow muscle fibers• Deeper in red color due to higher
concentration of myoglobin,
• Capable of slow but sustained contraction
• Well developed aerobic metabolism therefore
resistant to fatigue.
• Fast muscle fibers –
• Whiter due to lower concentrations of
myoglobin
• Have fewer mitochondria and rely more on
anaerobic activity for function.
• Capable of quick contraction but fatigue more
quickly

• All skeletal muscles contain a mixture of fast
and slow fibers in varying proportions, which
reflect the function of that muscle.
• Muscles that respond quickly –
predominantly white fibers
• Muscles for slow continuous activity – higher
concentration of slow fibers

• 4 pairs of muscles – muscles of mastication
1. Masseter
2. Temporal
3. Medial pterygoid
4. Lateral pterygoid
Masseter muscle
•.Orgin -Rectangular muscle that originates
from the zygomatic arc and extends
downward to the lateral aspect of the lower
border of the ramus of the mandible.

• Insertion - extends
from the region of the
second molar in the
mandible at the
inferior border
posteriorly to include
the angle.
• 2 portions –
• superficial portion
(fibers run downward
and slightly backward)
• Deep portion (fibers
run predominantly in
vertical direction)

Function – elevation of mandible and
teeth brought
into contact
• Superficial portion – aid in protruding the
mandible
• When the mandible is protruded and biting
force is applied ,the fibers of deep portion
stabilize the condyle against the articular
eminence.

Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 2008; 66:
2330
Studies concluded that there is a significant
association between the posterior-to-anterior
facial
height ratio and the masseter muscle in
children,
indicating that subjects with stronger masseter
muscles have an increased posterior facial
height
for a given anterior facial height.
Girls show greater associations than boys
between the masseter muscle and vertical
craniofacial morphology.

Stavros Kiliaridis et al ,European Journal of
Orthodontics 25 (2003) 259–263
Studied the relationship between thickness
of masseter muscle and width of maxillary
dental arch and results showed that -

• Masseter muscle thickness was greater in

older individuals and in males.
• In the female group, maxillary intermolar
width showed a direct, significant association
with masseter thickness both during
contraction and relaxation i.e. females with
thicker masseter muscles had a wider
maxillary dental arch.

• The findings of this study indicate that
the functional capacity of the masticatory
muscles may be considered as one of the
factors influencing the width of the
maxillary dental arch.

• Temporal muscle
• Orgin-Large fan
shaped muscle that
originates from the
temporal fossa and
lateral surface of the
skull.
• Divided into 3
distinct areas
according to fiber
direction and
ultimate function
-anterior, middle and
posterior portion

• Anterior portion –
vertically directed
fibers
• Middle portion
-obliquely across
lateral aspect of
the skull
• Posterior portion
–horizontally
alligned fibers

Function elevates
mandible and
teeth brought
into contact

• Contraction of anterior portion – mandible raised
vertically
• Contraction of middle portion –elevates and
retrudes
• Contraction of posterior portion – elevation and
slight
retrusion
• Because the angulation of its muscle fibers
varies , the temporal muscle is capable of co
ordinating closing movements. It thus is a
significant positioning muscle of mandible.

• Clinical examination:
• "Ask the patient to clench their teeth
while you palpate both masseter muscles
above the angles of the jaw and then
while you palpate both temporalis
muscles over the temples."

• Medial pterygoid
muscle
• Origin
from
the
pterygoid fossa and
extends
downward,
backward and outward
to insert along the
medial surface of the
mandibular angle.
• Along
with
the
masseter muscle ,it
forms a muscular sling
that
supports
the
mandible
at
the
mandibular angle.

Function – mandible elevated and teeth
brought into contact
- also active in protruding the
mandible.
- unilateral contraction brings
about a mediotrusive movement of the
mandible

Lateral pterygoid muscle
• Divided into 2 –since their functions are
nearly opposite - inferior lateral pterygoid
muscle
superior lateral pterygoid
muscle

Inferior lateral
pterygoid muscle
• Origin- at the outer
surface of the lateral
pterygoid
plate
and
extends
backward,
upward and outward to
its insertion primarily on
the neck of the condyle.

function – when the
inferior right and left
lateral pterygoid muscle
contracts simultaneously
–condyles
are
pulled
down
their
articular
eminences and mandible
is protruded.