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Course Code

MTH 321

By

Dr. Moiz ud Din khan

Professor of Mathematics

Lecture # 15

Lecture Outline

• In this Lecture we will discuss and prove the

following theorems:

Lecture Outline •• In this Lecture we will discuss and prove the following theorems: 1. If is a sequence in a compact metric space then some subsequence of converges to a point of .

.Lecture Outline •• In this Lecture we will discuss and prove the following theorems: 1. If is a sequence in a compact metric space then some subsequence of converges to a point of 2. Every bounded sequence in contains a convergent subsequence.

If is a sequence in a compact metric space then some subsequence of converges to a point of 2. ����� ���������� sequence �� � Cauchy .Lecture Outline •• In this Lecture we will discuss and prove the following theorems: 1. In ��� ������ ����� �. Every bounded sequence in contains a convergent subsequence. The subsequential limits of a sequence in a metric space form a closed subset of 4. 3.

• Definition. . Subsequence.

• Definition. Subsequence.

• Given a sequence ,

• Definition. Subsequence.

• Given a sequence ,

• consider a sequence

• Definition. Subsequence.

• Given a sequence ,

• consider a sequence

• of positive integers, such that

such that • Then the sequence is called a subsequence of . Subsequence. .• Definition. • consider a sequence • of positive integers. • Given a sequence .

such that Then the sequence is called a subsequence of . Subsequence. consider a sequence of positive integers. Examples: .• Definition. • • • • • Given a sequence .

•Theorem. If is a sequence in a compact metric space then some subsequence of converges to a point of • Proof. .

•Theorem. • Let be the range of the sequence . If is a sequence in a compact metric space then some subsequence of converges to a point of • Proof.

•Theorem. then there is a and a sequence with such . • Let be the range of the sequence • If is finite. If is a sequence in a compact metric space then some subsequence of converges to a point of • Proof.

• Let be the range of the sequence • If is finite. If is a sequence in a compact metric space then some subsequence of converges to a point of • Proof. then there is a and a sequence with such that .•Theorem.

If is a sequence in a compact metric space then some subsequence of converges to a point of • Proof. • Let be the range of the sequence • If is finite. .•Theorem. then there is a and a sequence with such that • The subsequence so obtained converges to p.

• If is infinite. If is a sequence in a compact metric space then some subsequence of converges to a point of • Proof. Then by the theorem . • Let be the range of the sequence • If is finite. then there is a and a sequence with such that • The subsequence so obtained converges to p.•Theorem.

then E has a limit point in K” . Then by the theorem • “If E is an infinite subset of a compct set K. then there is a and a sequence with such that • The subsequence so obtained converges to p.•Theorem. • Let be the range of the sequence • If is finite. • If is infinite. If is a sequence in a compact metric space then some subsequence of converges to a point of • Proof.

• We have. .

•• We have. • E has a limit point .

•• We have. • E has a limit point • Chose so that .

• E has a limit point • Chose so that • Choosing .•• We have. .

• Since every nbd of p contains infinite many points of E. .•• We have. • E has a limit point • Chose so that • Choosing .

• E has a limit point • Chose so that • Choosing . • Since every nbd of p contains infinite many points of E.•• We have. • Therefore for an integer .

• Since every nbd of p contains infinite many points of E.•• We have. • E has a limit point • Chose so that • Choosing . • Therefore for an integer • Such that .

• E has a limit point • Chose so that • Choosing . • Therefore for an integer • Such that .•• We have. • Since every nbd of p contains infinite many points of E.

• E has a limit point • Chose so that • Choosing . • Since every nbd of p contains infinite many points of E. • Therefore for an integer • Such that • Then converges to p.•• We have. .

.

contains a . Proof.Every bounded sequence in •Theorem. convergent subsequence.

Every bounded sequence in •Theorem. Let be a bounded sequence in . contains a . convergent subsequence. Proof.

Let be a bounded sequence in .Every bounded sequence in •Theorem. Proof. contains a convergent subsequence. . • Since sequence is bounded if the set of terms of the sequence is bounded.

• This implies is bounded.Every bounded sequence in •Theorem. . contains a convergent subsequence. Let be a bounded sequence in . Proof. • Since sequence is bounded if the set of terms of the sequence is bounded.

• This implies is bounded.Every bounded sequence in •Theorem. . therefore. contains a convergent subsequence. Let be a bounded sequence in . • We know that “Every bounded subset of lies in compact subset of ”. • Since sequence is bounded if the set of terms of the sequence is bounded. E lies in compact subset of . Proof.

Proof. therefore.Every bounded sequence in •Theorem. Let be a bounded sequence in . contains a convergent subsequence. • We know that “Every bounded subset of lies in compact subset of ”. • This implies that the sequence lies in compact metric space. • This implies is bounded. . E lies in compact subset of . • Since sequence is bounded if the set of terms of the sequence is bounded.

• This implies is bounded. contains a convergent subsequence. • Since sequence is bounded if the set of terms of the sequence is bounded. • We know that “If is a sequence in a compact metric space X. therefore. Let be a bounded sequence in . then some subsequence of converges in ” . E lies in compact subset of .Every bounded sequence in •Theorem. • This implies that the sequence lies in compact metric space. Proof. • We know that “Every bounded subset of lies in compact subset of ”.

Every bounded sequence in •Theorem. E lies in compact subset of . • This implies is bounded. . therefore. Let be a bounded sequence in . contains a convergent subsequence. • This implies that the sequence lies in compact metric space. then some subsequence of converges in ” • Therefore there exists some subsequence of which converges to some point of . • Since sequence is bounded if the set of terms of the sequence is bounded. Proof. • We know that “If is a sequence in a compact metric space X. • We know that “Every bounded subset of lies in compact subset of ”.

.

The subsequential limits of a sequence in a metric space form a closed subset of • Proof.•Theorem. .

The subsequential limits of a sequence in a metric space form a closed subset of • Proof. • Let be the set of all subsequential limits of .•Theorem.

The subsequential limits of a sequence in a metric space form a closed subset of • Proof.•Theorem. • Let be the set of all subsequential limits of • Let q be a limit point of .

•Theorem. The subsequential limits of a sequence in a metric space form a closed subset of • Proof. • Let be the set of all subsequential limits of • Let q be a limit point of • We have to show that .

•Theorem. • • • • Let be the set of all subsequential limits of Let q be a limit point of We have to show that Choose so that . The subsequential limits of a sequence in a metric space form a closed subset of • Proof.

The subsequential limits of a sequence in a metric space form a closed subset of • Proof. • • • • • Let be the set of all subsequential limits of Let q be a limit point of We have to show that Choose so that (If no such exists. and there is nothing to prove) .•Theorem. then has only one point.

The subsequential limits of a sequence in a metric space form a closed subset of • Proof. • • • • • Let be the set of all subsequential limits of Let q be a limit point of We have to show that Choose so that (If no such exists. and there is nothing to prove) • Put .•Theorem. then has only one point.

The subsequential limits of a sequence in a metric space form a closed subset of • Proof. • • • • • Let be the set of all subsequential limits of Let q be a limit point of We have to show that Choose so that (If no such exists. and there is nothing to prove) • Put • Suppose are chosen .•Theorem. then has only one point.

The subsequential limits of a sequence in a metric space form a closed subset of • Proof. and there is nothing to prove) • Put • Suppose are chosen • Since q is a limit point of . then has only one point.•Theorem. there is an . • • • • • Let be the set of all subsequential limits of Let q be a limit point of We have to show that Choose so that (If no such exists.

•• with .

•• with • Since there is an s. .t.

t. Then . • .•• with • Since there is an s.

t. Then . • .•• with • Since there is an s.

• .t.•• with • Since there is an s. Then • For .

t. • . . Then • For • This implies converges to q.•• with • Since there is an s.

• . • Hence .•• with • Since there is an s.t. Then • For • This implies converges to q.

Then • • • • For This implies converges to q.•• with • Since there is an s.t. . Hence This completes the proof. • .

.

.• Cauchy Sequence.

.

Theorem. . In ��� ������ ����� �. ����� ���������� sequence �� � Cauchy sequence. • Proof.

.

.

.

Every bounded sequence in contains a convergent subsequence. If is a sequence in a compact metric space then some subsequence of converges to a point of 2. The subsequential limits of a sequence in a metric space form a closed subset of .summery: • Lecture • We have proved that: 1. 3.

THANK YOU .

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