Real Analysis I

Course Code

MTH 321

By
Dr. Moiz ud Din khan
Professor of Mathematics

Lecture # 11

Lecture Outline
• In this Lecture we will Define and study:

Lecture Outline
• In this Lecture we will Define and study:
1. Ordered Fields

Lecture Outline
• In this Lecture we will Define and study:
1. Ordered Fields
2. The Field of Reals

The Field of Reals and 3. Extended Real umber System .Lecture Outline • In this Lecture we will Define and study: 1. Ordered Fields 2.

• Field: .

which satisfy the following “field axioms” (A).• Field: • A field is a set F with two operations. and (D): . called addition and multiplication. (M).

(M). and (D): • (A) Axioms for Addition: .• Field: • A field is a set F with two operations. called addition and multiplication. which satisfy the following “field axioms” (A).

(M). which satisfy the following “field axioms” (A).• Field: • A field is a set F with two operations. called addition and multiplication. F is closed under addition . and (D): • (A) Axioms for Addition: 1.

(M).• Field: • A field is a set F with two operations. and (D): • (A) Axioms for Addition: 1. which satisfy the following “field axioms” (A). F is closed under addition 2. called addition and multiplication. Addition is commutative in F .

called addition and multiplication. Addition is commutative in F 3. (M).• Field: • A field is a set F with two operations. Addition is associative in F . F is closed under addition 2. and (D): • (A) Axioms for Addition: 1. which satisfy the following “field axioms” (A).

• Field: • A field is a set F with two operations. which satisfy the following “field axioms” (A). Addition is associative in F 4. (M). called addition and multiplication. F is closed under addition 2. Addition is commutative in F 3. and (D): • (A) Axioms for Addition: 1. 0 is in F and is additive identity of F .

Addition is commutative in F 3. 0 is in F and is additive identity of F 5. Addition is associative in F 4. F is closed under addition 2.• Field:   • A field is a set F with two operations. there exists s. which satisfy the following “field axioms” (A). For each . called addition and multiplication. (M). and (D): • (A) Axioms for Addition: 1.t .

Addition is commutative in F 3.• Field:   • A field is a set F with two operations. 0 is in F and is additive identity of F 5.t (M) Axioms for multiplication . there exists s. F is closed under addition 2. and (D): • (A) Axioms for Addition: 1. (M). For each . which satisfy the following “field axioms” (A). called addition and multiplication. Addition is associative in F 4.

F is closed under multiplication .(M) Axioms for multiplication 1.

F is closed under multiplication 2.(M) Axioms for multiplication 1. multiplication is commutative in F .

multiplication is commutative in F 3. F is closed under multiplication 2. Multiplication is associative in F .(M) Axioms for multiplication 1.

(M) Axioms for multiplication 1. Multiplication is associative in F 4. F is closed under multiplication 2. 1 is in F and is multiplicative identity of F . multiplication is commutative in F 3.

Multiplication is associative in F 4. then there exists s. F is closed under multiplication 2. multiplication is commutative in F 3.t 1 . For each and .•(M)   Axioms for multiplication 1. 1 is in F and is multiplicative identity of F 5.

Multiplication is associative in F 4. multiplication is commutative in F 3. then there exists s. 1 is in F and is multiplicative identity of F 5.t 1 (D) Distributive Law .•(M)   Axioms for multiplication 1. For each and . F is closed under multiplication 2.

then there exists s. For each and .t 1 (D) Distributive Law holds for all .•(M)   Axioms for multiplication 1. 1 is in F and is multiplicative identity of F 5. multiplication is commutative in F 3. F is closed under multiplication 2. Multiplication is associative in F 4.

is a field.•  Note: 1. .

• Ordered Field: • An ordered field is a field F which is also an ordered set. such that: .

• Ordered   Field: • An ordered field is a field F which is also an ordered set. such that: a) if and .

such that: a) if and b) if and .• Ordered   Field: • An ordered field is a field F which is also an ordered set.

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then is a field.• Real   Field • Let . .

• Complex   Field • Let then is a field where addition and multiplication is defined as: .

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• Extended Real Number System: .

we define .•  Extended Real Number System: The extended real number system consists of the real field and two symbols. and .

•  Extended Real Number System: The extended real number system consists of the real field and two symbols. and . . we define o for every .

for every . we define o o Note. and . .•  Extended Real Number System: The extended real number system consists of the real field and two symbols.

. is upper bound of every subset of the extended real number system. 1.•  Extended Real Number System: The extended real number system consists of the real field and two symbols. we define o for every . and . o Note.

. o Note.•  Extended Real Number System: The extended real number system consists of the real field and two symbols. . and . 1. 2. we define o for every . then Sup(E)= in the extended real number system. is upper bound of every subset of the extended real number system.

we define o for every . 3. . is upper bound of every subset of the extended real number system. . 2. then Sup(E)= in the extended real number system.•  Extended Real Number System: The extended real number system consists of the real field and two symbols. The extended real number system does not form a field. and . o Note. 1.

for   every real number : .•• Note: In extended real number system.

•• Note: In extended real number system. for   every real number : .

•• Note: In extended real number system. for   every real number : .

if . for   every real number : 1.•• Note: In extended real number system.

•• Note: In extended real number system. for   every real number : 1. if . if 2.

for   every real number : 1. if 2.•• Note: In extended real number system. if .

if 2. if . for   every real number : 1.•• Note: In extended real number system.

•• Note: In extended real number system. if . for   every real number : 1. if 2.

if . for   every real number : 1. if 2.•• Note: In extended real number system.

if .•• Note: In extended real number system. if 2. for   every real number : 1.

for   every real number : 1. is undefined .•• Note: In extended real number system. if 3. if 2.

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THANK YOU .