Chapter 1

:
Exploring the Network

Principles of Networking

Chapter 1: Objectives
Students will be able to:
 Explain how multiple networks are used in
everyday life.
 Explain the topologies and devices used in a small
to medium-sized business network.
 Explain the basic characteristics of a network that
supports communication in a small to mediumsized business.
 Explain trends in networking that will affect the use
of networks in small to medium-sized businesses.

Chapter 1




1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

Globally Connected
LANs, WANs, and the Internet
The Network as a Platform
The Changing Network Environment
Summary

2. MANs. WANs and Internet Converged Network Network Trends Network Security . 5. Introduction to Network Network Platform for communications Network Topology LANs. 6. 7.Exploring the Network 1. 3. 4.

1. Introduction to Network .

wireless).). switches. Introduction to Network • A communication network is a set of ▫ Devices (routers. etc. access point. modem. and ▫ Protocols by which end-user equipment attached to the network can exchange meaningful information . ▫ Links (wired: fiber. ▫ Algorithms. copper. base station.1.

concentrators. etc . Introduction to Network Communication: transfer of information between entities Information: data plus meaning Role of Computers in Communication – As users .main sources and sinks for info and data – As providers . protocol translators.used to implement switching nodes.1. controllers.

Audio – sound 5. Text [represent as bit pattern – sequence of bits( 0s or 1s)] ? ASCII – by ANSI (7 bits) ? Extended ASCII (8 bits – extra 0 at left) ? Unicode (16 bits) ? ISO (32 bits) 2. Video – continuous images . Introduction to Network Data Representation 1. Images – composed of a matrix of pixels (picture elements) – small dots  Size of pixel depends on resolution 4.1. Numbers 3.

. Introduction to Network .

Introduction to Network .1.

1. Introduction to Network .

1. Introduction to Network Networks of Many Sizes .

1. Introduction to Network Components of a Network There are three categories of network components: ▫ Devices ▫ Media ▫ Services .

1. and wireless access points) ▫ Internetworking Devices (routers) ▫ Security Devices (firewalls) . Introduction to Network Network Infrastructure Devices Examples of intermediary network devices are: ▫ Network Access Devices (switches.

laptops. tablets.1. Introduction to Network End Devices Some examples of end devices are: ▫ Computers (work stations. file servers. PDAs. web servers) ▫ Network printers ▫ VoIP phones ▫ TelePresence endpoint ▫ Security cameras ▫ Mobile handheld devices (such as smartphones. and wireless debit / credit card readers and barcode scanners) .

Introduction to Network Network Representations .1.

Introduction to Network Network Media .1.

Exploring the Network
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7.

Introduction to Network
Network Platform for
communications
Network Topology
LANs, MANs, WANs and Internet
Converged Network
Network Trends
Network Security

2. Network Platform for communications
Networks in Our Past and Daily Lives

2. Network Platform for communications
Networking impacts in our daily lives

• Networks Support the Way We Learn
• Networks Support the Way We Communicate
• Networks Support the Way We Work
• Networks Support the Way We Play

each will have their own system processing.2. One workstation is a subset to another workstation. and at the end result will be delivered/compile to each other. so that is where we need a NETWORK. Network Platform for communications Distributed Processing Definition – a task is divided among multiple computers. .

e:. Network Platform for communications Network Criteria Performance ▫ i.transmit time. response time ▫ Evaluated by metrics: throughput and delay Reliability ▫ i.e:. time to recover failure and ▫ network robustness in catastrophe (devastation) • Security • Examples: ▫ protect data from unauthorized access (hackers) ▫ Protect data from damage and development ▫ Implement policies and procedure for data recovery .2.frequency of failure.

2. Network Platform for communications Clients and Servers .

Network Platform for communications Peer-to-Peer .2.

WANs and Internet Converged Network Network Trends Network Security . 2. 4. Introduction to Network Network Platform for communications Network Topology LANs. 5. MANs.Exploring the Network 1. 6. 7. 3.

3. Network Topology Categories of Topology Topology Mesh Star Bus Ring .

3. Network Topology Mesh Topology .

Network Topology Star Topology .3.

3. Network Topology Bus Topology .

Network Topology Bus Topology • • • • • Advantage:?Ease of installation ?Cheapest topology to implement ?Failure of one station does not affect others ?Less expensive due to less footage of cabling and no network hubs • ?Good for smaller networks not requiring higher speeds .3.

Network Topology Bus Topology • Disadvantage:• ?Difficult reconnection and fault isolation • ?Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building • ?Limited in size and speed • ?Difficult to troubleshoot • ?Difficult to administer/troubleshoot • ?A cable break can disable the entire network. no redundancy • ?Maintenance costs may be higher in the long run • ?Performance degrades as additional computers are added .3.

3. Network Topology Ring Topology .

Network Topology Ring Topology • Advantage:• ? Ease to install and reconfigure • ? Can create much larger network using Token Ring • ? Growth of system has minimal impact on performance • ? All stations have equal access .3.

3. adds and changes of devices can affect the network • •Network adapter cards and Multi Access Unit (MAU)'s are much more • expensive than Ethernet cards and hubs • •Much slower than an Ethernet network under normal load • •Failure of one computer may impact others • •Complex . Network Topology Ring Topology • Disadvantage:• •Moves.

▫ the layout of cabling. Network Topology Topology Diagrams • Physical Topology ▫ The shape of the cabling layout used to link devices of the network. the locations of nodes. the level of control or fault tolerance desired.3. ▫ determined by the capabilities of the network access devices and media. and the interconnections between the nodes and the cabling. . and the cost associated with cabling or telecommunications circuits.

but is wired a physical star from the Media Access Unit. ▫ For example. ▫ is not necessarily the same as its physical topology.3. . the original twisted pair Ethernet using repeater hubs was a logical bus topology with a physical star topology layout. or the way that the data passes through the network from one device to the next without regard to the physical interconnection of the devices. Network Topology Topology Diagrams • Logical Topology ▫ is the way that the signals act on the network media. Token Ring is a logical ring topology.

4. 5. Introduction to Network Network Platform for communications Network Topology LANs. MANs. 3.Exploring the Network 1. 7. WANs and Internet Converged Network Network Trends Network Security . 2. 6.

Other types of networks include: • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) • Wireless LAN (WLAN) • Storage Area Network (SAN) . LANs.4. MANs. WANs and Internet Types of Networks The two most common types of network infrastructures are: • Local Area Network (LAN) • Wide Area Network (WAN).

WANs and Internet LAN . LANs.4. MANs.

LANs.4. MANs. WANs and Internet WAN .

WANs and Internet The Internet . MANs.4. LANs.

The Internet Intranet and Extranet .

Connecting to the Internet Connecting Remote Users to the Internet .

Connecting to the Internet Connecting Businesses to the Internet .

6. 2. 4. WANs and Internet Converged Network Network Trends Network Security .Exploring the Network 1. 3. Introduction to Network Network Platform for communications Network Topology LANs. 5. 7. MANs.

Converged Networks The Converging Network .

Converged Networks Planning for the Future .

we are discovering that there are four basic characteristics that the underlying architectures need to address in order to meet user expectations: • Fault Tolerance • Scalability • Quality of Service (QoS) • Security .Reliable Network Supporting Network Architecture As networks evolve.

Reliable Network Fault Tolerance in Circuit Switched Network .

Reliable Network Packet-Switched Networks .

Reliable Network Scalable Networks .

decrease priority for web page retrieval or email. like peer-to-peer file sharing or live entertainment .decrease priority or block unwanted activity. • High importance to organization . • Non time-sensitive communication . • Undesirable communication .increase priority for services like telephony or video distribution.increase priority for production control or business transaction data.Reliable Network Providing (QoS) Examples of priority decisions for an organization might include: • Time-sensitive communication .

Reliable Network Providing Network Security .

5. 4. 7. WANs and Internet Converged Network Network Trends Network Security . 6. MANs. 2.Exploring the Network 1. Introduction to Network Network Platform for communications Network Topology LANs. 3.

Network Trends New trends Some of the top trends include: • Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) • Online collaboration • Video • Cloud computing .

Network Trends Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) .

Network Trends Online Collaboration .

Network Trends Video Communication .

Network Trends Cloud Computing There are four primary types of clouds: • Public clouds • Private clouds • Custom clouds • Hybrid clouds .

g.. fire suppression) • Security devices .Network Trends Data Centers A data center is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components including: • Redundant data communications connections • High-speed virtual servers (sometimes referred to as server farms or server clusters) • Redundant storage systems (typically uses SAN technology) • Redundant or backup power supplies • Environmental controls (e. air conditioning.

Networking Technologies for the Home Technology Trends in the Home .

Networking Technologies for the Home Powerline Networking .

Networking Technologies for the Home Wireless Broadband .

6. 7. 4. 2. 5. MANs.Exploring the Network 1. 3. WANs and Internet Converged Network Network Trends Network Security . Introduction to Network Network Platform for communications Network Topology LANs.

Future of Networking Network Security .

also called zero-hour attacks • Hacker attacks • Denial of service attacks • Data interception and theft • Identity theft . and Trojan horses • Spyware and adware • Zero-day attacks.Network Security Security Threats The most common external threats to networks include: • Viruses. worms.

Network Security Security Solutions Network security components often include: • Antivirus and antispyware • Firewall filtering • Dedicated firewall systems • Access control lists (ACL) • Intrusion prevention systems (IPS) • Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) .

• The Internet is the largest network in existence. and interests. They can range from simple networks consisting of two computers. In fact. the term Internet means a ‘network of networks. learn. The Internet provides the services that enable us to connect and communicate with our families. • Networks come in all sizes.Exploring the Networking Summary In this chapter. friends. work. you learned: • Networks and the Internet have changed the way we communicate. work. . to networks connecting millions of devices. and even play.

. you learned: • The network infrastructure is the platform that supports the network. It is made up of network components including end devices. intermediate device.Exploring the Networking Summary In this chapter. and network media. • Network security is an integral part of computer networking. • Networks must be reliable. It provides the stable and reliable channel over which communication can occur. regardless of whether the network is limited to a home environment with a single connection to the Internet. or as large as a corporation with thousands of users.

number of users.Exploring the Networking Summary In this chapter. and number and types of services that are supported on it. . The network infrastructure must grow and adjust to support the way the network is used. you learned: • The network infrastructure can vary greatly in terms of size. The routing and switching platform is the foundation of any network infrastructure.