Attention Deficit Hyperactivity

Disorder (ADHD)

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Definition: A condition that
describes students who display
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hyperactive behaviors, have
difficultly attending to the task at
hand, and tend to be disruptive.

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Characteristics
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• Inattention, poor listening skills, and
relentlessness
• Impulsiveness
• Hyperactivity
• Onset before age 7
• Inappropriate excessive motor activity

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shorter time on each • Positive behavior modification program • Use brief instructions 1 4 .Teaching Strategies 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • • • • 2 Highly structured environment Reduce teaching space Control extraneous stimuli Larger number of activities.

generally evident before age 3. 4 .Autism 2 1 Definition: Developmental significantly affecting 0011 0010 1010 disability 1101 0001 0100 1011 verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction.

repetitive. and stereotypical patterns of behavior. and activities • Lack of awareness of the existence of feelings of others • Absence of imaginative activity 1 4 . interests.Characteristics 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 2 • Impairment in social interaction • Impairment of verbal and nonverbal communication • Restricted.

Teaching Strategies 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 2 • Use a consistent behavior modification program • Teach in a less stimulating area • Use an established routine with repetitive transition strategies • Use a predictable routine • Be consistent in use of terms. equipment. and class organization • Use vigorous aerobic exercise to reduce selfstimulating behavior 1 4 .

Cerebral Palsy (CP) 2 1 Definition: A disorder of movement and posture caused by 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 a defect in the developing brain 4 .

Characteristics 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • Primitive reflexes are still evident • Slow to develop postural reflexes • May have the following – – – – – Mental retardation Convulsions Speech problems Oculocomotor defects Hearing and vision loss 2 1 4 .

Teaching Strategies 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • • • • • Work on muscle stretching Develop range of motion Develop postural alignments Use ramp climbing Work on gait training 2 1 4 .

both deaf and hard of 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 hearing 2 1 4 .Hearing Impairment Definition: All levels of hearing loss.

Characteristics 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • • • • 2 Balance may be affected Information processing time is longer Physical fitness may be lower May be a delay in social/emotional development • Speech can range from intelligible to none 1 4 .

Teaching Strategies 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • Make sure the student can see your lips when you talk • Use visual demonstrations • Coordinate your communication method with the rest of the IEP team • Learn basic signs and use them • Use captioned videotapes • Stand still when giving instructions 2 1 4 .

Learning Disabilities (LD) Definition: A disability in which the individual possesses average but is substantially 0011 0010 1010intelligence 1101 0001 0100 1011 delayed. 2 1 4 .

Characteristics 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • • • • • • Poor spatial orientation Clumsiness Figure-background problems Rhythmic problems Problems with body awareness Difficulty with motor proficiency 2 1 4 .

and tactile activities • Work on balance and upper/lower body coordination for motor proficiency • Work on obstacle courses for spatial orientation • Use brightly colored objects for contrast • Give opportunity for rhythmical problems 1 4 . games.Teaching Strategies 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 2 • Work on body/space problems with action songs. mirrors.

Cognitively Impaired 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 2 • Definition: When the following three criteria are met: • Cognitive level (IQ below 70-75) • Significant limitations exist in two or more adaptive skill areas • The condition is present from childhood (age 18 or less) 1 4 .

• Characteristics • Cognitive learning – area where students differ most 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • Learn at slower rate • Achieve less academically • Social/emotional • Exhibit same range but more frequently exhibit inappropriate responses to social/emotional situations • Do not fully comprehend what is expected of them in social situations • Physical/motor • Delayed development of physical skills • Usually overweight because of less activity levels 2 1 4 .

• Teaching Strategies for individuals with mild cognitive impairment • Put individual in less demanding sport position 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • Over teach the cognitive information • Emphasize fitness activities • Teaching strategies for individuals with severe cognitive impairment • Emphasize range of motion exercises • Have individual propel himself as much as possible • Concentrate on postural righting activities • Use resistance training with therabands • Concentrate on vestibular activities 2 1 4 .

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or personal satisfaction to such a degree that intervention in required.Behavior Disorders Definition: a condition of disruptive or inappropriate behaviors that interferes with a 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 student’s learning. 2 1 4 . relationships with others.

Characteristics 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 • • • • • • • Poor coordination Refusal to practice Loss of emotional control Hostility Noncooperative behavior Disorientation in space and time Destructive 2 1 4 .

Teaching Strategies 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 2 • Remove distracting objects • Impose limits on use of equipment and facilities • Use games of social interaction • Expect aggressiveness an monitor it closely • Use activities that provide immediate feedback 1 4 .