FEEDER PIPE : Directly connected to a main pipe for distribution of water to industrial or residential areas. ii. factory or fire hydrant. stop water flow. balance pressure in pipe and remove effluents. which are :i. iv. release trapped air in pipe. TOPIC 3 SANITARY PIPEWORK -Piping System . iii. MAIN PIPE : Delivers water from treatment plant to distribution tank or directly to distribution area. VALVE : needed to control water flow rate.Pipe system includes network of pipes and valves. BRANCH PIPE : From feeder pipe to individual house. building.

Change of flow direction. iii. ii.Head loss or energy loss during distribution to consumers is caused by the followings : i. TOPIC 3 Factors of Head Loss in Pipes . iv.Differences in pipe size.Friction.Difference of level (Gradient).

from big to smaller diameter b.I. Change in sizes. Change in sizes. from small to bigger diameter TOPIC 3 Factors of Head Loss in Pipes . DIFFERENCES IN PIPE SIZE a.

ii. TOPIC 3 Factors of Head Loss in Pipes . CHANGE OF DIRECTION Change of flow direction in pipe causes head loss.

FRICTION Head loss due friction is the major energy loss in pipe. while large diameter pipe can reduce head loss.iii. Therefore. the flow is reduced and this factor contributes to head loss in pipe. TOPIC 3 Factors of Head Loss in Pipes . Head loss in pipe is energy lost due to friction between water and the inner surface of the pipe. Long length of pipe in the piping system causes high head loss.

TOPIC 3 Factors of Head Loss in Pipes . it experiences head loss due to friction. difference in pipe sizes and change of directions. GRADIENT When water is delivered through distribution pipe from higher to lower positions.iv.

Turbulent flow iii.Laminar flow ii. density and the diameter of pipe.Transition flow The types of flow depend on the velocity.TYPE OF FLOW There are 3 types of flow in a pipe :i. TOPIC 3 Fluid Flow .

TOPIC 3 Fluid Flow .TURBULE NT Is flow of particles which gains high kinetic energy and move erratically. LAMINAR Is flow of fluid particles moving in single line parallel to each other.



Single stack pipe is installed vertically to ease discharge of soil and waste water. TOPIC 3 Discharge Pipe .Dual pipe system. iii. ii.Single pipe system. Branching pipe is connected from sanitary fitting with single stack pipe.Discharge pipe consists of single stack. There are 3 systems employed in the installation of soil and waste water discharge pipes :i.Single stack system. branching and vent pipe. Vent pipe to released compressed air.

The sanitary fitting should be connected to the single stack pipe separately. 3. The flow is then drained into the drainage pipe. 4. Discharge in branching pipes fro sanitary fitting are transferred into single stack pipe. System where only 1 pipe is required and it does not need vent pipe as it can function as vent pipe. 5. This system is easy to install. Single Stack System . 6. 7. 2. The system is appropriate for multistorey buildings.(Main Pipe) TOPIC 3 1. Sanitary fitting should be installed near the single stack pipe to reduce the length of the branching pipe and minimum the sound of flow in the pipe.

All sanitary fittings are connected to 1 pipe only. (Main Pipe) 2. TOPIC 3 Single Pipe System . All sanitary fitting should be installed near a main pipe. 5. The single stack vent pipes release compressed air that may have trapped at the base of waste and wastewater single stack pipe. Connection is made at the branching pipe.1. Use only 1 pipe in collecting and draining discharge. 4. 3. The vent branching pipe connects the single stack vent pipe to the sanitary fitting.

The soil discharge pipe drains soil water from the WC and urinal.1. The single stack pipe is then connected to the underground drainage pipe. WB and bathtub. 6. 2. This system uses 2 single stack pipes. (Soil Main Pipe) (Waste Main Pipe) 4. Both of the single stack pipes have individual ventilation system. This system is suitable when the waste fitting is located far from the waste water fitting. 3. one for waste and the others is for soil. TOPIC 3 Dual pipe System . The waste discharge pipe drains wastewater from the shower tray. 5.

Complicated installation work 1. Ventilation is less efficient Comparison of Discharge Pipe Systems . Waste and soil single stack pipe 1. 2. Require only one single stack pipe 1. Single Pipe TOPIC 3 1. Require only one main pipe 2. Easier to install 1. 2.System Types of Pipes Advantag es Dual Pipe 1. Vent pipe installation is complicated Require more pipelines for vent pipe 1. 2.Require two types of pipe 2. Single Stack Waste single stack pipe Soil single stack pipe Disadvantages 1. More effective drainage Waste and soil single stack pipe Vent pipe 1.