Understanding Hydrocarbon

Fluid Properties and Behavior
Source: Djamel Eddine Ouzzane

03/01/17

SPE Continuing Education

1

Outline
Application of Fluid Properties
Volumetric Relationships used by Reservoir
Engineers
Different Sources to Obtain Fluid Properties
PVT Analysis and Fluid Compositions
Aspects of Sampling
03/01/17

SPE Continuing Education

2

Application of Fluid Properties Phase Behavior and Compositional Concepts are required to determine.  How much oil or gas is present  How much can be recovered  How fast it can be recovered  Reservoir management and production strategies Fluid Properties 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 3 .

Gas Viscosities   Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility C0  Coefficient of Thermal Expansion  0 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 4 .Properties Required for Reservoir Engineering Calculations  Formation Volume Factor of Oil BO  Formation Volume Factor of Gas Bg  Solution Gas-Oil Ratio RS  Gas Compressibility Factor Z  Oil and Gas Densities  Oil .

Gas Formation Volume Factor Gas Well Stream Oil VSC Volume at Reservoir (P.Tsc) VR 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 5 .T) Bg = Volume at (Psc .

Oil Formation Volume Factor Bubble Point 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 6 .

Gas .Oil Ratio GOR .RS Gas Separator Stock Tank Separator Oil GOR = Stock Tank Oil Volume of Gas at (Psc. Tsc) Volume of Oil at (Psc. Tsc) (Standard Conditions) 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 7 .

RS Bubble Point 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 8 .Gas .Oil Ratio GOR .

How to Obtain Fluid Properties Laboratory Analysis Black Oil Correlations Measured Data on Fluid Sample @ Reservoir Conditions Calculated Data using Validated Correlations On Specific Oil databases Compositional Models – Equation of State Calculated Data using Consistent Thermodynamic Models based on Fluid Compositions 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 9 .

Laboratory PVT Analysis 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 10 .How to Obtain Fluid Properties 1.

How to Obtain Fluid Properties 2. Black Oil Correlations Standing Correlation for Bubble Point Rs g API T : : : : 03/01/17 Dissolved Gas to Oil Ratio Gas Gravity Oil Stock Tank Density Reservoir Temperature in degrees F SPE Continuing Education 11 .

How to Obtain Fluid Properties 2. Black Oil Correlations Restricted to the type of oil from which they were derived 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 12 .

EOS RT a (T ) P  V  b V ( V  b)  b( V  b)    Z 3  1  B Z 2  A  2B  3B 2 Z  AB  B 2  B3   2 b A  ln  i  i  Z  1  ln  Z  B  b B2 2      1 03/01/17  x a j ij j1 a  f iL  N  V  fi        bi   Z  1  2 B     ln b Z  1  2 B     2  10 -12 SPE Continuing Education 13 .Equation of State . Compositional Modeling .How to Obtain Fluid Properties ! 3.

How to Obtain Fluid Properties ! 3.EOS Based on Equilibrium Criteria Fluid Mixture Temperature Y1 Y2 Y3…Yn Z1 Z2 Z3…Zn Gas Equilibrium Ratio Ki Pressure X1 X2 X3…Xn = Yi Xi Liquid 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 14 . Compositional Modeling Equation of State .

Compositions & Phases Hydrocarbons Non Phase:  Paraffins Hydrocarbons Solid/liquid  Naphtenes  Oxygen gas  Aromatics  Nitrogen  Asphaltenes  Sulfur  Wax  Resins  CO2 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 15 .

Zn. Fe.Hydrocarbon Families & Other Reservoir Components NON HYDROCARBONS • N2 upto10% HYDROCARBONS Aliphatic Aromatics • CO2 4% • H2S 6% • H2. K. • CaCl2. He Paraffins Olefins Naphtenics •Na. Cu. Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Cyclic Aliphatics •MgCl2 5% • O2 Laboratory 03/01/17 Analysis .C1-C6 and C7+ SPE Continuing Education 16 .

What are Compositions ? Asphaltene Structure Wax (Paraffin) Structure 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 17 .

Phase Envelope Pressure (psia) 8000 7000 A 6000 Liquid B 5000 4000 3000 Dew Point Region Bubble Point Region Vapour Critical Point Bubble point line D 2-phase Region Dew point line 2000 40 1000 0 20 40 60 80 20 E 10 0 100 Vapour F 120 o 140 160 180 200 TemperatureC) ( 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 18 .

75 6.19 C10H22 0.00 100.68 1.96 C12 plus 0.44 2.67 C9H20 0.00 100.90 4.10 2.75 7.Typical Reservoir Fluid Compositions Component Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Methane Ethane Propane iso-Butane normal-Butane iso-Pentane normal-Pentane Hexanes Heptanes Octanes Nonanes Decanes Undecanes Dodecanes plus Total 03/01/17 Formula Dry Gas Wet Gas Retrogrde gas Volatile Oil Black Oil N2 0.36 2.90 0.51 7.30 0.60 1.98 0.56 60.45 7.30 0.64 i-C4H10 0.68 5.90 4.45 4.29 i-C5H12 0.50 23.27 C6H14 0.01 5.20 0.85 C7H16 0.20 0.09 C8H18 0.12 1.80 1.00 2.36 CO2 1.42 C3H8 1.00 100.19 1.70 5.62 7.54 4.05 2.20 1.79 n-C4H10 0.60 0.51 2.27 1.21 0.00 85.20 0.06 1.47 C11H24 0.98 n-C5H12 0.68 1.53 15.00 78.97 C2H6 4.29 CH4 90.19 2.50 1.10 1.20 0.30 0.20 3.10 0.96 2.28 2.00 .00 19 100.20 3.88 3.59 5.76 SPE Continuing Education 100.70 3.

Need Fluid Properties  Need Samples How to Obtain Fluid Samples ? Surface Sampling Bottom Hole Sampling Formation Tester Sampling 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 20 .

Surface Sampling 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 21 .

Bottom Hole Sampling Preserved Samples Reservoirs Conditions Selective Sampling Zones Sampling early in the life of the reservoir with minimum disturbance Lower overall cost 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 22 .

Formation Tester Sampling Assess reservoir fluid quality Contamination Monitoring Insitu Bubble point determination 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 23 .

Fluid Property Uncertainty Is Sample Quality a Concern ? Maximum Acceptable Uncertainty Sample’s Poor Quality Typically <10 % 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 24 .

Is Sample Quality a Concern ? $ 03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 25 .

03/01/17 SPE Continuing Education 26 .Conclusions Fluid properties are required in various disciplines of petroleum engineering Petroleum fluids are complex mixtures and therefore accurate properties must be obtained Laboratory analysis generally provide reliable data The compositional approach is preferred and widely used Samples may be collected using various methods however obtaining a representative sample is crucial.