Improved Oil Recovery

The Fluid Phases in a Reservoir
• Reservoirs can contain
– Oil, gas, and water
– Oil and water
– Gas and water

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The Fluid Phases in a Reservoir (continued) • Oil – Most common unit of measure is the barrel (one barrel equals 42 gallons) – Also measured in cubic meters and metric tonnes – Oil volume shrinks as it is brought from the reservoir to the surface due to the evolution of gas as the pressure is lowered – The correction in volume from reservoir to surface conditions is known as the “oil formation volume factor” or Bo (units are reservoir barrels/stock tank barrel) • Gas – Gas volume expands as the pressure drops from reservoir to surface conditions – Volume contracts as the temperature drops from reservoir to surface condions – Drop in pressure normally has much greater effect .

– The factor to correct from reservoir to surface conditions is known as the “gas formation volume factor” or Bg – “Standard” temperature and pressure must be defined • Water – The volume of water changes slightly as a small amount of gas comes out of solution and it cools – Correction is known as the “water formation volume factor” or Bw (units reservoir barrels/stock tank barrel) – Correction often ignored .

Reservoir Engineering Requires an Understanding of Drive Mechanism .

Water Recoveries of up to 50% of the original oil-in-place .

40% of the original oil-in-place . the gas cap expands and forces oil to the well Recoveries of 20 .Gas-Cap Drive A layer (or cap) of gas is initially present in the reservoir As the pressure of the reservoir falls.

gas comes out of solution and drives the oil to the well Poor recoveries (5 . no free gas present Oil is said to be “under saturated” with gas As pressure falls to what is known as the “bubble point”.Dissolved (or Solution) Gas Drive Initially.30%) of the original oil-in-place .

gas cap drive. the most difficult to handle . and/or solution gas drive all acting at once! Probably the most common Also.Combination Drive Can have water drive.

Improved Recovery Techniques Water flooding .

Improved Recovery Techniques Gas Injection Can be either “miscible” or “immiscible”. .

Improved Recovery Techniques Chemical Flooding • Chemicals can be added to injected water to improve recovery • Examples are: – Polymer flooding – Alkaline flooding – Surfactant flooding – Alkaline surfactant flooding .

Surfactant flooding .

Improved Recovery Techniques Steam Flooding & Cyclic Steam Injection .

Improved Recovery Techniques Fire flooding .

Oil Recovery • Primary oil recovery • Secondary oil recovery • Enhanced oil recover .

Primary recovery • Production under natural forces • Forces…………… .

Secondary recovery • Pressure treatment or pressure buildup • Using » Water injection » Gas injection .

Enhanced oil recovery • • • • Chemical methods Thermal methods Co2 flooding Microbial .