Eng.

Rashid Sher Mohd,
M.Sc

INTRODUCING OF
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

2 - .Lecture Contents Introduction Reservoir Engineering Aspects in IOR and EOR Immiscible Flooding (Waterflooding) Miscible Flooding Chemical Flooding Thermal Injection Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) Guidelines for Selecting IOR and EOR Methods Design and Implementation of EOR Method DK .

Lecture Evaluation  Attending = 10 %  Home Works = 10 %  Presentation = 05 %  Mid Test = 25 %  Final Test = 50 % DK .3 - .

1980. - Van Poolen. Bardon C. ”Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery.. 1980.4 - .H. DK . (NIPER) “Enhanced Oil Recovery Information”. Penn Well Books Division of Publishing Company. Oklahoma. - National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research.References - Latil M..K. Burger J. “Enhanced Oil Recovery”. London. Graham Trotman Ltd. Tulsa. Soureau P.

Rashid Sher Mohd.Sc INTRODUCTION . M.Eng.

HOW IF THE OIL PRODUCTION FROM THE WELL OR FIELD WAS DECREASES ? .

The definition of EOR • A method that use to recover the oil content when the general oil production method no longer efficient .

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INSITU COMBUSTION DK .OIL RECOVERY PHASES Primary Recovery NATURAL FLOW ARTIFICIAL LIFT WATER DRIVE DEPLETION DRIVE GAS CAP DRIVE GRAVITY DRIVE COMBINATION DRIVE SECONDARY RECOVERY WATER FLOODING PRESSURE MAINTENANCE IMMISCIBLE GAS FLOOD FLOODING GAS LIFT PUMP TERTIARY RECOVERY MISCIBLE GAS FLOOD -CO2 FLOOD .ALKALINE .9 - .RICH GAS CHEMICAL FLOODING .POLYMER .N2 FLOOD .STEAM FLOOD .MICELLAR POLYMER .SURFACTANT .HOT WATER .ASP THERMAL INJECTION MICROBIAL EOR .INERT GAS .

Natural or Primary Recovery Drives Solution gas drive Gas cap drive Water drive Gravity drainage Combination drive Gas Oil Water DK .10 - .

Secondary Recovery  Waterfloods and Immiscible gas floods  No compositional or temperature changes take place in the reservoir except pressure and displacement  Suitable for light oil.11 - . low viscosity oil and low pressure reservoirs Injector Producer DK .

compositional and thermal changes in the reservoir rock and fluids  Improve recovery beyond secondary level Injector  Appropriate selection and design are important Producer DK .Enhanced Oil Recovery  Cause physical. chemical.12 - .

75 % DK . gas cap 20 .13 - .45%  Secondary Methods Waterflood 20 .40% gravity drainage 30 .90 % Field applications 45 .Typical Recovery Factors  Natural or Primary Methods Heavy oil 5 .15 % Light oil: solution gas drive 10 .40 %  Tertiary or EOR Methods Laboratory tests 70 .45 % Immiscible Gas flood 15 .25% water drive.

Production DK .14 - . BOPD Extrapolated primary Primary phase Secondary phase Incremental Tertiary / EOR Extrapolated secondary EOR phase Time or Cum.Incremental Recovery Factor Incremental Secondary Recovery Qo.

Sometimes called Tertiary Recovery Methods. This does not mean that EOR Methods have to be applied after Secondary Recovery. EOR methods involve injection of substances which cause changes in compositions. temperature and rock-fluid interactions in the reservoir. In some cases.15 - .ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (EOR) The main objective of EOR is to recover as much as possible oil in reservoir / well Aim at increasing the oil recovery over its primary and secondary potential. EOR Methods could be applied after Primary or even at discovery. DK .

Miscible Gas Reduces Sorw by developing miscibility with the oil through a vaporizing or condensing gas drive process.IOR AND EOR MECHANISMS Waterflood Maintains reservoir pressure & physically displaces oil with water moving through the reservoir from injector to producer.16 - . DK . and increases volumetric sweep efficiency by reducing the water-oil mobility ratio. Chemical Reduces Sorw by lowering water-oil interfacial tension. Thermal Reduces Sorw by steam distillation and reduces oil viscosity.

Remaining Reserves (RR). DK . Reservoir Heterogeneity.17 - . Rock Properties. Fluid Properties.FACTOR AFFECTING EOR Reservoir Depth. Reservoir Drive Mechanisms.

g. miscible floods) .g.18 - .Oil displacement efficiency is improved by reducing oil viscosity (e. thermal floods) or by reducing capillary forces or interfacial tension (e.Volumetric sweep efficiency is improved by developing more favorable mobility ratio between injectant and remaining oil reserves (e...g. WAG processes) Important to identify remaining oil reserves and mechanisms necessary to improve recovery before implementing IOR and EOR DK . chemical floods.IOR AND EOR MAIN OBJECTIVES Goal of IOR and EOR processes is to mobilize remaining oil reserves Achieved by enhancing oil displacement and volumetric sweep efficiencies ..

EOR IMPLEMENTATION STEPS RESERVOIR GEOLOGY DATA Type of Rock Migration Direction Bulk Volume (Vb) RESERVOIR DATA Rock Properties Porosity Permeability Saturation Wettability Capillary Pressure PRODUCTION DATA Fluid Properties Reservoir Condition Oil Properties Water Properties Res. Pressure Res.19 - . Temperature Reservoir Drive Mechanism Oil Cut Water Cut Remaining Reserve Screening Criteria Selecting EOR Methods Laboratory Study Evaluation Simulation Study Pilot Project Monitoring and Evaluation Full Scale DK .