Reservoir Simulation& Numerical Simulators

Khaled FEKI


Course Objectives…

 Learn about reservoir simulation using ECLIPSE Blackoil.
 Understand how the simulator initializes and executes.
 Define corner point grid geometry.
 Describe rock and fluid properties.
 Allocate initial pressure and saturation distributions.
 Define aquifers.
 Control wells under history matching and prediction.



 Introduction
 Data preparation
 Gridding
 Upscaling
 Fluid description
 Initialisation
 Aquifer representation
 Wells representations
 History matching
 Prediction
 Numerical simulator :Eclipse
 Petrel
 Eclipse/Petrel worshop


Course Objectives…
 Lecture:
• Introduction to simulation
• Introduction to ECLIPSE
• ECLIPSE model: Discuss each section of the data file.
• Convergence issues
 Exercises:
• Build a model from scratch.
• Use Petrel to compare results.





Incentives for running a flow simulation K.FEKI 7 .

 The equations are solved to give the pressure and saturations for each block as well as the production of each phase from each well.  The required well production rates are specified as a function of time.  Basic data is provided for each cell.  Wells are positioned within the cells. K.FEKI 8 .Reservoir Simulation Basics  The reservoir is divided into many cells.

FEKI Well Productio n 9 . Flow = Transmissibility * Mobility * Potential Difference Geometry and Properties Fluid Properties K.Simulating Flow  Flow from one grid block to the next  Flow from a grid block to the well completion  Flow within the wells (and surface networks).

Reservoir simulator K.FEKI 10 .

FEKI 11 .Reservoir simulation model K.

FEKI 12 .Reservoir simulation model K.

FEKI 13 .Main modeled phenomena K.

FEKI 14 .Definitions K.

Types of models K.FEKI 15 .

Types of simulators K.FEKI 16 .

Types of simulators K.FEKI 17 .

Black Oil model K.FEKI 18 .


Reservoir Simulation PLANNING K.FEKI 20 .

FEKI Prediction 21 .Prediction Future performance Reservoir Simulation Model Geological Model History Matching Reduce Operation Expenses Increase Recovery K.

Problem definition K.FEKI 22 .

Data review K.FEKI 23 .

FEKI 24 .Main Types of Data K.

Study approach K.FEKI 25 .

FEKI 26 .Study approach K.

FEKI 27 .Gridding K.



Corner Point






Sugar box geometry \ Block-Centered



Sugar box geometry \ Block-Centered



Block-centered grid



FEKI 33 .Block-centered grid K.

FEKI 34 .Block-centered grid K.

Dip or fault ?



Corner point geometry



CPG grid intercell flow



Fault description in CPG grid



Example of CPG reservoir model K.FEKI 39 .

FEKI 40 .Block-Centered vs. Corner Point: Geometry K.

– Pre-processor is not required. – Geologic structures are modelled simplistically. – Pre-processor is required.Block-Centered vs. – Geometry data is voluminous. – Geometry data is small. – Incorrect cell connections across faults (user must modify transmissibility). – Pinchouts and unconformities are difficult to model.FEKI 41 . Corner Point: Geometry Block-Centered: Corner Point: – Cell description can be complex. – Pinchouts and unconformities can be modelled accurately. K. – Layer contiguity across fault planes is accurately modelled. – Geologic structures can be modelled accurately. – Cell description is simple.

FEKI 42 .Reservoir description : PROPERTIES K.

FEKI 43 .Reservoir description : PROPERTIES K.

then k.FEKI 44 . K. followed by j.Cartesian Data Reading Convention Cell data is read with i cycling fastest.

Cartesian Data Reading Convention Cell data is read with R cycling fastest. K.FEKI 45 . followed by . then k.

FEKI 46 .Block Identification and Ordering • • • • Natural ordering Zebra ordering Diagonal D2 ordering Alternating diagonal D4 ordering • Cycle ordering • Cycle-2 ordering K.





Using LGR to model gas coning K.FEKI 51 .

Grid definition: Quiz K.FEKI 52 .

Reservoir layering K.FEKI 53 .

FEKI 54 .Reservoir layering: Use of log Correlation K.

Reservoir layering: Quiz K.FEKI 55 .

2001 K.FEKI 56 .Upscaling • Optimum level of and techniques for upscaling to minimize errors Gurpinar.

Rock properties: Main parameters K.FEKI 57 .

FEKI 58 .Rock properties: Net thickness and porosity K.

Rock properties: Compressibility K.FEKI 59 .

FEKI 60 .Rock properties: Compressibility K.

Horizontal & Vertical Permeability K.FEKI 61 .

FEKI 62 .Horizontal Permeability K.

FEKI 63 .Vertical Permeability K.

Fluid description K.FEKI 64 .

Fluid description: Influence of reservoir temperature K.FEKI 65 .

Fluid description: Black oil assumptions



Fluid description: Black oil relationships



Fluid description: Black oil representation



Black oil: From surface to reservoir conditions



Fluid description: PVT Regions K.FEKI 70 .

Initial state : Summary K.FEKI 71 .

Initial state : Pressure calculations K.FEKI 72 .

Example of the initial reservoir condition calculations K.FEKI 73 .

Computing the initial pressure distribution K.FEKI 74 .

FEKI 75 .Computing the initial pressure distribution K.

Initial state: Saturation calculation K.FEKI 76 .

Initial state: Water-Oil contact definition K.FEKI 77 .

Initial state: Saturation calculation 78 .

Initial state: Saturation Height function 79 .

Initial state: Water-Oil contact discretization 80 .

Aquifer Representation 81 .

Aquifer Representation 82 .

Use of large grid cells 83 .

Van Everdingen and Hurst approach 84 .

Van Everdingen and Hurst approach 85 .

Van Everdingen and Hurst 86 .

Van Everdingen and Hurst approach 87 .

Van Everdingen and Hurst approach 88 .

Wells’ representation K.FEKI 89 .

Wells representation K.FEKI 90 .

Wells representation: Inflow performance K.FEKI 91 .

FEKI 92 .Wells representation: Inflow performance K.

HISTORY MATCHING OBJECTIVE Validate (Calibrate) the reservoir characterization by comparing performance of the model with historical performance (rates.  RULE OF THUMB Predictions are reliable on a period twice the production period. 93 . BSW and GOR by well. by zone or for the entire field. saturations) PRINCIPLE Reproduce with the model the measured evolutions of pressure. pressures. Difficulties Uncertainties on fault and flow barriers network.

…)  It is possible to distinguish between two main types of problems:  Pressure match  Saturation match 94 . grid orientation.HISTORY MATCHING: Main issues  Observed flows are imposed on wells during the history period. One expect to reproduce:  pressure evolution  WOR and GOR  WOC and GOC contacts  This is not a simple work as:  Many data are unknown (no information is available far from wells)  It is not obvious to detect the most influent data (all data act together)  Some artefacts must be corrected (grid size.

95 . consistent matching than matching which is accurate but destroys the model. consistent matching than matching which is accurate but destroys the model.Steps IN HISTORY MATCHING STEP 1 : Identification of available data that have to be matched • Adapt data to grid size STEP 2 : Data Analysis • Identification of main uncertainty in the Geomodel STEP 3 : Selection of matching parameters • Identification of probable range for each matching parameter STEP 4 : Modification of matching parameters • Trial and error process  G&G must work hard to help the reservoir engineer to maintain the consistency of the geological model. It is better to have rough.  It is better to have rough.

FEKI 96 .History Matching K.

GOR if no 3 phase separator? • Frequency of measurements (weekly. 3 phase separator) • How is measured WOR. estimate the accuracy of allocation to intervals • When possible.History matching: Data to match  Determine the accuracy and frequency of measurements • Which kind of separator (Gas-Liquid. cement) to be known • Production logging is the best tool to allocate rate • If no production logging. monthly?) • Activity factor (% of activity of the wells)  Allocation of rates to perforated interval • Completion and well status (casing. draw the maps of injected fluid breakthrough for each Interval  Shut-in pressures of wells • look at pressure curves to estimate the pressure in the cell 97 .

interference with surface flow lines 98 .History matching: Data to match  RFT in wells drilled after the start of production • Differential depletion by interval • Communication through faults  Observation wells • Shut-in wells should be changed to observation wells  WHP of wells not usually used • Flow in tubing difficult to match exactly.

layers)  Change first the more uncertain parameters by zone • Aquifer transmissibility (kh) .History matching strategy First Phase: pressure match  Look at total fluid production and average pressure (kind of material balance): • Of the whole field • Of parts of the field (compartments. or zones determined from the geological analysis. storativity (kh ct). • Reservoir permeability o Multiplying factor to reproduce pressure gradients o Vertical connections to account for pressure discrepancies between layers (RFT useful) o Connections through faults to account for different pressure regimes 99 .

gas sweep …) K.FEKI 100 . fluid expansion. water sweep.Pressure match : Material balance Objective • Get a correct evolution with time of the average reservoir pressure  Main parameters • Volumes Originally in Place • Aquifer size & water influx • Pore & Fluid Compressibility  Important notice • The material balance should address the whole reservoir voidage (no material balance per fluid in surface conditions) • It is useful to get an energy balance to have an estimation of the importance of each individual production mechanisms (pore volume contraction.

FEKI 101 . Bo (P) + {Qg .Pressure match : Material balance Reservoir voidage calculation: Q res = Qo . • ECLIPSE keyword for reservoir voidage is RESV.Rs (P) . K. Qo (P)}. Bw (P)  Important notice • Reservoir voidage has to be calculated and is depending on the reservoir pressure. Bg (P) + Qw .

FEKI 102 .Pressure match : Darcy’ law Objective • Get a correct geometry of the flow lines and pressure drop along flow lines Main parameters o One phase flow • Transmissivity distribution o Multi phase flow • Transmissivity distribution • Transfer functions (relative permeability & capillary pressure). K.

Diffusivity equation: Main parameters: K.FEKI 103 .Pressure match : Diffusivity equation Objective • Get a correct evolution of reservoir pressure versus time and space.

FEKI 104 .Numerical production indices PEACEMAN formula K.

or zones determined from the geological analysis.History matching strategy Second step: Fluid distribution matching  By zones (compartments. Try to match fluid BT (breakthrough). layers) look at contacts movements. sealing or conductive faults)  change Kr only if changes in permeability distribution cannot achieve a satisfactory match • First check if initial water saturation is correctly represented 105 . fluid produced volumes. high permeability zones. WOR and GOR of wells.  Adjust first the permeability distribution • Vertical distribution by layer and connection between layers (vertical permeability) • Areal distribution of permeability (barriers.

fluid entry from another interval)  Corrections should remain in the vicinity of the well 106 .History matching strategy Final step: well by well match  Once the global and zonal matches are correct. look at each well  Check if the cell size is not the cause of an incorrect match  Check if coning can be suspected and is not taken into account By specific well Kr functions  Check if the discrepancy does not reveal a completion problem(cement or casing leak.




History matching : Some advices Flow directions are not correct if pressure is not matched • Don’t try to match saturations if you are not matched in pressure  Early well behaviour correspond to area close to the wells • Concentrate on well data to match early production times  Late well behaviour correspond to area far from the wells • Don’t limit your analysis close to the wells to match late production times  Modification of matching parameters • Try to anticipate model reactions by using simple calculations • Don’t introduce new parameters without a look back to G&G K.FEKI 110 .

FEKI 111 .History matching : Some advices Flow directions are not correct if pressure is not matched • Don’t try to match saturations if you are not matched in pressure  Early well behaviour correspond to area close to the wells • Concentrate on well data to match early production times  Late well behaviour correspond to area far from the wells • Don’t limit your analysis close to the wells to match late production times  Modification of matching parameters • Try to anticipate model reactions by using simple calculations • Don’t introduce new parameters without a look back to G&G K.

 Both corner-point and conventional block-center geometry options are available in ECLIPSE. 2 or 3 phase systems.  ECLIPSE 100 can be used to simulate 1.  Program is written in FORTRAN77 and operate on any computer with an ANSI-standard FORTRAN77 compiler and with sufficient memory. Radial and Cartesian block-center options are available in 1. New Names for the ECLIPSE Simulators: • ECLIPSE 100 = ECLIPSE Black Oil • ECLIPSE 300 = ECLIPSE Compositional • ECLIPSE 500 = ECLIPSE Thermal K. gas/water) are solved as two component systems saving both computer storage and computer time. general purpose black oil simulator with gas condensate option. three dimensional. In addition to gas dissolving in oil (variable bubble point pressure or gas/oil ratio).FEKI 112 . A 3D radial option completes the circle allowing flow to take place across the 0/360 degree interface. Two phase options (oil/water. ECLIPSE 100 may also be used to model oil vaporizing in gas (variable dew point pressure or oil/gas ratio). 2 or 3 dimensions. oil/gas.NUMERICAL SIMULATOR (ECLIPSE)  ECLIPSE 100 is a three phases.

and submit runs. each of which is introduced by a section-header keyword.How to start? To run simulation you need an input file with all data concerning reservoir and process of its exploitation. A list of all section-header keywords is given in following.DATA Input data file An ECLIPSE data input file is split into sections. The name of input file has to be in the following format: FILENAME.FEKI 113 . Note that all keywords in input file have to be in proper order The keywords in the input data file (including section-header keywords) are each of up to 8 characters in length and must start in column 1. Any standard editor may be used to prepare the input file. All characters up to column 8 are significant. Alternatively ECLIPSE Office may be used to prepare data interactively through panels. Any characters on the same line as a keyword from column 9 onwards will be treated as a comment . K. Input data for ECLIPSE is prepared in free format using a keyword system. together with a brief description of the contents of each section and examples of keywords using in file code.

SUMMARY ~ . EGRID / ~ . INC Error / warnings + Text outputs • Text file: Results ~ . Data ~ . K.ECLIPSE files and file extensions User defined data • General data set: • General data set: • Include: ~ . INIT ~ . GRID ~ . RESTART Use Windows NOTEPAD and NOT Word to edit files.FEKI 114 . PRT • Geometry: • INITIAL state: • 1 D results: • 2 D / 3 D results: ~ . GRDECL ~ .

in the order shown • Each section must begin with the section keyword before specifying any data or keywords for that section. K. • All section keywords must start in column 1.GENERAL INPUT RULES SECTION KEYWORDS The input data file for ECLIPSE consists of 8 sections.FEKI 115 .ECLIPSE DATA FILE .

FEKI . 116 K. • Each table is ended with a slash.ECLIPSE DATA FILE . • ECLIPSE will perform interpolation in a table if a 1* is specified.GENERAL INPUT RULES TABLES • Multiple tables are specified using only one keyword.

ECLIPSE DATA FILE .FEKI 117 .Format 132 character limit Comments denoted by -- Any unset items after terminating slash are defaulted Defaults are taken for the next four items Keywords start in the first column Comments can be placed after terminating slash K.

FEKI 118 .Section header keywords The list of section-header keywords in proper order RUNSPEC GRID EDIT PROPS REGIONS SOLUTION SUMMARY SCHEDULE A data record has to be ended with a slash [/] K.

How ECLIPSE Sections Relate to the Equation • Flow = Transmissibility * Mobility * Potential Difference Geometry and Properties Fluid Properties Well Production GRID PROPS SCHEDULE EDIT REGIONS SOLUTION K.FEKI 119 .

absolute permeability. GRID The GRID section determines the basic geometry of the simulation grid and various rock properties (porosity. components etc. phases present. switches.FEKI 120 .Section header keywords RUNSPEC Title. From this information. grid block centre depths and transmissibilities. mid-point depths and inter-block transmissibilities. the program calculates the grid block pore volumes. problem dimensions. K. net-to-gross ratios) in each grid cell. EDIT Modifications to calculated pore volumes.

If this section is omitted no Summary files are created. Necessary if certain types of graphical output (for example water-cut as a function of time) are to be generated after the run has finished.Section header keywords SUMMARY Specification of data to be written to the Summary file after each time step.FEKI 121 . Vertical flow performance curves and simulator tuning parameters may also be specified in the SCHEDULE section. SCHEDULE Specifies the operations to be simulated (production and injection controls and constraints) and the times at which output reports are required. K.

Z directions OIL. VAPOIL. with no simulation NB: ECLIPSE automatically creates the RUNSPEC section for cases built in Petrel. GAS.Y.FEKI . DISGAS FIELD/METRIC/LAB WELLDIMS unit convention well and group dimensions UNIFIN indicates that input files are unified UNIFOUT indicates that output files are unified START start date of the simulation NOSIM data checking only.RUNSPEC section TITLE DIMENS title number of blocks in X. 122 K. WATER.

and geological model X.GRID section TOPS DX. PERMZ PORO Depths of top faces of grid blocks for the current box. PERMY. and geological model from IRAP 123 K.Z-direction permeabilities for the current box.Y. and geological model from IRAP Grid block porosities for the current box.Z-direction grid block sizes for the current box.FEKI . DY. and geological model from IRAP X. data is taken from Structure map. data is taken from Isopac map.Y. DZ PERMX. data is taken from Isopac map. data is taken from Isopac map.

FEKI 124 .Minimum GRID Section  Required properties for each cell in the model: o Geometry: • Cell dimensions • Cell depths. o Properties: • Porosity • Permeability • Net-to-gross or net thickness.  If net thickness is not included. K. ECLIPSE assumes it is 1.

FEKI 125 .Block-Centered vs. Corner Point: Geometry Eclipse Keyword K.

FEKI 126 .4 corners on face A 7050 7050 7050 7050 -.4 corners on face C 7100 7100 7100 7100 -.4 corners on face D / K.Define Corner Point Grid COORD --4 coordinate lines --xtop ytop ztop xbot ybot zbot 0 0 7000 0 0 7100 -.line 2 0 500 7000 0 500 7100 -.4 corners on face B 7050 7050 7050 7050 -.line 4 / ZCORN --depths of 16 corners 7000 7000 7000 7000 -.line 3 500 500 7000 500 500 7100 -.line 1 500 0 7000 500 0 7100 -.

FloGrid. • Export the property as a text file (*.  Petrel.grdecl).  ECLIPSE has no facilities for entering data as a function. • Use the INCLUDE keyword.FEKI 127 .  Explicit values only. drop the property in the Define Simulation Case process. K. Office. and FloViz have property calculators: • Define the property with the pre-processor.  If the case is built in Petrel.Define Corner Point Grid One property per cell (NX * NY * NZ):  Values must also be defined for inactive cells.

FEKI 128 .Input Examples (1) K.

Input Examples (2) K.FEKI 129 .

Cell Property Definition Using Petrel  Properties are assigned to each cell during upscaling and exporting to a file.  The INCLUDE keyword is used to load the properties from Petrel.GRDECL / K. INCLUDE BRILLIG_props.FEKI 130 .  If the case is built in Petrel. drop the property in the Define Simulation Case process.

FEKI K2 1 NX 6 NY 18 NZ Wells 1 / 1 131 . 2.Introducing a Cartesian LGR CARFIN --Name 1. Insert CARFIN. 4. Update LGR in RUNSPEC. 3. K. Decide on LGR size. I1 2 I2 4 J1 2 J2 7 K1 1 LGR1 Choose global cells to refine.

18 /   PERMX  150 / / ENDFIN K.FEKI 132 .  Must be placed after specification keyword (CARFIN) and before ENDFIN or subsequent specification keyword. CARFIN ­­Name  I1 I2 J1 J2 K1 K2 NX NY NZ Wells   LGR1   2  4  2  7  1  1  6 18  1   1   / EQUALS   PORO   0.  Can be overridden using most GRID section keywords.LGR Property Modification  Local cells automatically inherit properties from global host cells.

Non-Neighbor Connections (NNCs)  An NNC allows flow between cells without adjacent IJK indices.      Pinchouts and unconformities (PINCH and/or MINPV) Faults Aquifers often require NNCs Local grid refinement (LGRs) User-defined NNCs.FEKI 133 . K.

1).Non-Neighbor Connections (NNCs) LGR Fault Throw Global cell (1. ( and (3. and (1. PINCH or MINPV must be used. K.1) has NNCs to (3. (1.2. ECLIPSE calculates in Corner Point grids (default transmissibility NEWTRAN).3.1.4). Unconformity (12.2.1).5) has NNC to (12.1).2.FEKI 134 .2.7).2.1) has NNCs to LGR cells (1. ECLIPSE calculates.

Transmissibility Options in ECLIPSE:NEWTRAN Based on the mutual interface area of the two cells A dip correction is automatically accounted for (using the vector distance from the cell center to the cell face center).FEKI 135 . Default for corner point grids K.

Transmissibility Modifications K.FEKI 136 .

GRIDFILE 0 1/  Static properties (*. K. INIT.Transmissibility Modifications  For a report in the PRT file. use  Geometric data (*. use  RPTGRID (requests report of many GRID section keywords.init).egrid). including ALLNNC)  For 3D viewable output.FEKI 137 .

EDIT is optional. and transmissibility are calculated in the GRID section.FEKI 138 .EDIT Section Cell geometry. These properties are modified in the EDIT section. K. pore volume.

FEKI 139 . Z) Operators: MULTIPLY. BOX. and TRAN (X. THT. MINVALUE. Y. COPY. and MAXVALUE Others: EDITNNC. EQUALS.) are allowed but not recommended. Z. PORV. MULTPV.EDIT Section Some GRID section output can be modified in EDIT section: DEPTH. Y. etc. R. K. R. and MULTFLT MULT (X. THT.

 Fluid information required (for each fluid in RUNSPEC): • Fluid PVT as a function of pressure • Density or gravity  Rock information required: • Relative permeabilities as a function of saturation • Capillary pressures as a function of saturation • Rock compressibility as a function of pressure.PROPS Section  The PROPS section contains pressure-dependent and saturation-dependent properties of the reservoir fluids and rocks.FEKI 140 . K.

water relative permeability and capillary pressure as functions of Swv SOF3 oil relative permeability as a function of So in three phase system SGFN gas relative permeability and capillary pressure as functions of Sg PVTO FVF and viscosity of live oil as functions of pressure and Rs PVTG FVF and viscosity of wet gas as functions of pressure and Rv PVTW FVF.FEKI 141 . compressibility and viscosity of water DENSITY ROCK reservoir fluid properties from PVT analysis SWFN saturation tables from special core analysis PROPS section stock tank fluid densities rock compressibility K.

FEKI 142 .Dead Oil Entry Data Using PVDO and PVCDO K.

Live Oil Data Entry Using PVTO K.FEKI 143 .

00877 0.0392 0.FEKI 144 .00049 0.00012 0.00357 0.05230 0.00554 0.00014 0.0234 0.0318 0.00417 0.0252 0.01320 0.00060 Bg 0.0393 / / / / / / / K.00356 Mu 0.0281 0.00029 0.Wet Gas Data Entry Using PVTG PVTG --Pg 60 120 180 240 300 360 560 / Rv 0.0355 0.00019 0.00015 0.

0130 0.0148 0.240 1.Dry Gas Data Entry Using PVDG PVDG --P 1214 1414 1614 1814 2214 2614 3014 Bg 13.0047 Pd 1214 / K.0161 / RVCONST --Rv 0.282 Mu 0.947 7.638 1.0128 0.0124 0.0125 0.657 3.453 2.0139 0.028 4.FEKI 145 .

FEKI 146 .Reference Densities K.

EXTRAPMS  This keyword instructs ECLIPSE to warn you whenever extrapolations are made to PVT (or VFP) tables. ECLIPSE may extrapolate the PVT table data to inaccurate or non-physical values! K.  ECLIPSE stores PVT tables internally as the reciprocals of FVF and Viscosity * FVF.  If insufficient PVT data is supplied.FEKI 147 .

K. • In REGIONS. include PVTNUM and EQLNUM. check TABDIMS and EQLDIMS.FEKI 148 . • In PROPS. include multiple tables (some may be defaulted).Using Multiple PVT Regions  Necessary keywords: • In RUNSPEC.

FEKI 149 .ROCK Keyword Required because the pore volume varies under pressure Simplest approach: •ROCK keyword •Rock compressibility is reversible and the same everywhere. K.

Define Compositional Reservoir Fluid (Oil.Make fluid model using PETREL 1. 2. Build Fluid Model from Different Correlations K. Gas.FEKI 150 . Simulation 3. Process panel. Make fluid model 4. water) 5.

Purpose of Saturation Functions K.FEKI 151 .

Significant Saturation Endpoints 1 K.FEKI 152 .

Significant Saturation Endpoints 2 K.FEKI 153 .

FEKI 154 .Saturation Function Keyword Family 1 K.

FEKI 155 .Saturation Function Keyword Family 2 K.

Process panel. Create a Rock Compaction Function 6. Create relative permeabilities from Corey correlation 5. 2.FEKI 156 .Saturation Function using PETREL 1. Simulation 3. Make rock physics functions 4. Create Rock Compressibility K.

•Can be displayed in 2D and 3D (Petrel. FloViz.Saturation Function Keyword Family 2 RPTPROPS •Controls output from PROPS section to the PRT file INIT •Saturation functions and PVT data are written to the INIT file.FEKI 157 . Office. FloGrid) FILLEPS All saturation end points written to the INIT file K.

FEKI 158 .REGIONS section FIPNUM fluid-in-place regions SATNUM saturation table regions EQLNUM equilibration regions PVTNUM PVT data regions K.

In the SOLUTIONS section: RPTSOL FIP=2 / • K.FEKI The PRT file now shows the fluids in place both originally and at each report step.Use: Reporting Purposes • FIPNUM (fluid in place regions) are defined in the REGIONS section. 159 .

Output Controls K.FEKI 160 .

ECLIPSE will then define: • Initial pressures and phase saturation in each grid cell • Variation of reservoir fluid properties with depth • Initial ANALYTICAL AQUIFER conditions K.SOLUTION Section The objective is to set up: • Initial pressures • Initial saturations The SOLUTION section contains the information needed to initialize the model.FEKI 161 .

FEKI . data taken from well testing name of the restart file report switches for SOLUTION data 162 K.SOLUTION section EQUIL RESTART RPTSOL fluid contact depths and other equilibration parameters.

Restart: ECLIPSE reads the initial solution from a restart file created by an earlier run of ECLIPSE.FEKI 163 . K.ECLIPSE Initialization Options Equilibration: ECLIPSE computes initial pressures and saturations using data entered with the EQUIL keyword.

 May have more than one equilibration region (see EQLDIMS). EQUIL -- D 7000 P OWC 4000 7150 Pcow GOC Pcog 0 1* 1* K.EQUIL  Sets the contacts and pressures for conventional hydrostatic equilibrium.  EQUIL items are interpreted differently. depending on the phases present.FEKI RSVD/PBVD RVVD/PDVD 1* 1* N 0 / 164 .

FEKI 165 .Block-Centered Equilibrium (1) K.

Block-Centered Equilibrium (2) K.FEKI 166 .

FEKI 167 .Block-Centered Equilibrium (3) K.

 Check that scaled Pcow is physically reasonable (INIT file). 1. 3. and more.  PPCWMAX limits maximum capillary pressure scaling.Matching Initial Water Saturation You often have initial water saturation distribution BUT need EQUIL for pressure. K. ECLIPSE scales Pcow to match initial water saturation given in SWATINIT. other phase saturations. Enter initial water saturation array using SWATINIT in PROPS section. Input saturation tables as usual. Enter EQUIL keyword as usual.FEKI 168 . with non-zero Pcow. 2.

2.Initial conditions using PETREL 1.FEKI 169 . Simulation Make fluid model Initial conditions K. Process panel. 4. 3.

 Why bother to recalculate initial saturations and pressures?  Restarts save simulation time! Cell saturations and pressures recorded (Restart Run) Time K.Restart Runs (Initialization Run) Field Production Rate  The solution at the end of the initialization is set as start conditions for the history match.FEKI 170 .

Aquifer Modeling  ECLIPSE Blackoil includes these aquifer options:  Numerical aquifer  Analytical aquifer • Carter-Tracy aquifer • Fetkovich aquifer  Flux aquifer  Grid cell aquifer.FEKI 171 . K.

K.FEKI 172 .Numerical Aquifer Nominate grid cells below the OW contact (AQUNUM). Leave a row of water cells between the aquifer and the oil zone. Attach the aquifer to the reservoir using AQUCON.

K. Set up lists of aquifers with AQUALIST. These are best suited for smaller aquifers which may approach psuedo-steady state quickly. Connect the aquifer with AQUANCON. Define the aquifer with AQUFETP.Numerical Aquifer Fetkovich aquifers are based on a pseudo-steady state productivity index and the material balance between aquifer pressure and cumulative influx. 3.FEKI 173 . In the SOLUTION section: 1. 2.

Carter-Tracy approximates a fully transient model. Define pressure response with AQUTAB. Define the aquifer with AQUCT.Carter-Tracy Aquifers Carter-Tracy aquifers use tables of dimensionless time td versus dimensionless pressure Pd(td) to determine the influx. 4. 3. Connect the aquifer with AQUANCON. In the SOLUTION section: 1. K.FEKI 174 . 2. Set up lists of aquifers with AQUALIST.

2. Set up lists of aquifers with AQUALIST. Specify the aquifer with AQUFLUX. K. representing flux out of the reservoir. 3.  In the SOLUTION section: 1. Connect the aquifer with AQUANCON.Flux Aquifers  The user directly specifies the flux rate: Qai  Fa Ai mi Fa = the flux Ai = the area of the connecting cell block mi = an aquifer influx multiplier  It can be negative.FEKI 175 . The flux rate can be modified in the SCHEDULE section.

K. No extra keywords are necessary.Grid Cell Aquifer Simulation model extends over the water zone.FEKI 176 .

Carter tracy.Aquifer modeling: PETREL Define Aquifer area (polygon) Define Aquifer Type (Numerical.FEKI 177 . Fetkovich) Describe Aquifer Properties K.

SUMMARY section FOPT Field Oil Production Total FOPR Field Oil Production Rate FGOR Field Gas-Oil Ratio FWIR Field Water Injection Rate FOE Field Oil Efficiency FPR Field PRessure WBHP Well Bottom Hole Pressure FWCT Field Water CuT WOPR Well Oil Production Rate 178 K.FEKI .

FEKI 179 .SUMMARY section K.

FEKI .SCHEDULE section RPTSCHED TUNING WELSPECS COMDAT WCONPRO D WCONINJE WCONHIST TSTEP or DATE report switches to select which simulation results are to be printed at report times time step and convergence controls introduces a new well. the position of the wellhead. this must be entered after the WELSPECS control data for production wells control data for injection wells observed rates for history matching wells advances simulator to new report time(s) or specified report date(s) 180 K. its bottom hole reference depth and other specification data specifies the position and properties of one or more well completions. defining its name.

K. and production/injection.FEKI 181 . and economic limits. • Prediction: Specify control mechanisms.SCHEDULE section  The SCHEDULE section is used to specify: • Well operations to be simulated • Times (TSTEP and DATES) to be simulated • Simulator tuning parameters. new wells. facilities.  The SCHEDULE section often is used in two modes: • History matching: Specify actual wells.

History Matching vs. Prediction K.FEKI 182 .

4. Specify wells. Repeat.(Step 3) DATA File 5. Prediction 1. End of history match. 2. and rates.History Matching vs. • Specify any workovers. K. VFP tables.FEKI 183 . • Specify any new wells. Advance the simulation: • Specify old well rates. 3. completions. Specify output.

VFP Curve Specification The VFP table is a table of BHP versus FLO. or water-gas ratio. VFPi is the ECLIPSE family preprocessor that can be used to generate this keyword. GFR is the gas-oil ratio. GFR. and ALQ. liquid. or gas production rate. WFR is the water-oil ratio. or oil-gas ratio.FEKI 184 . WFR. gas-liquid ratio. THP. ALQ is a variable that can be used to incorporate an additional parameter. water cut. K. such as the level of artificial lift. FLO is the oil. Petrel can be used to create and analyze VFP tables using the PIPESIM engine and the VFP manager.

FEKI 185 .VFP Table Usage K.

WELSPECS --nm grp I J refD P1 G 2 2 1* P21 G 8 1 1* I20 G 20 1 1* / phase OIL OIL WAT drad -1 / -1 / -1 / K.  Compulsory keyword: A well must be introduced with this keyword before it can be referenced in any other keyword.Well Specification: WELSPECS  Introduces new well and specifies some of its general data.FEKI 186 .

re drainage radii re Pc.FEKI P* average reservoir pressure Pw. rd Physical Model  Productivity index (PI) and well drawdown depend upon grid block size in ECLIPSE. well BHP rd.Well Specification: WELSPECS Pw ECLIPSE Model  A significant part of history matching is adjusting well parameters to achieve the correct inflow performance. K. cell pressur e 187 .

Measure of Pressure  Appropriate drawdown behavior is achieved by adjusting the productivity index. • Request WBP and WBP9 in the SUMMARY section. • Use the approximation: WBP 9  WBHP  H WPIMULT  WBP  WBHP  H WBP 9 WBP 9 WBP Where: WBHP = bottomhole pressure from well test H = hydrostatic correction (midperfs to ECLIPSE datum) K.FEKI WBP 9 WBP 9 188 .

COMPDAT --nm I P1 J Ku Kl status sat CF Dwell Kh S 2* 1 10 OPEN 1* 1* 0.FEKI 189 .Completion Specification: COMPDAT  Specifies the position and properties of one or more well completions.583 / P21 2* 1 10 SHUT 1* 1* 0.583 / 5 AUTO / K.583 / I20 2* 1 1* 1* 0.

Historical Flow Rate: WCONHIST  Used to set a history-matching well’s observed flow rate. WRAT. GRAT. DATES 1 'FEB' 1970 / / WCONHIST --nm stat ctl-by P1 OPEN ORAT oil wat 822.58 gas VFPtbl 6122. LRAT.FEKI 190 .3 0.5 5* / / Repeated for each date K. and RESV  WCONINJH is the injection counterpart.  Control modes: ORAT.

2 days • END 2012 2012 / / Advance to 12.FEKI 191 .2 / Advance by 0.Conclude simulation K.00 am on 1/1/2012 Advance to 12.Simulation Advance and Termination • • • DATES 1 JAN 1 JUN • • TSTEP 1 / Advance to 12.00 am on 2/6/2012 • • TSTEP 0.00 am on 1/6/2012 -.

FEKI 192 .Common Workover Keywords  WELOPEN • Open and shut wells at a known time  COMPDAT • Alter completion properties to simulate plugs. and frac jobs  WELPI and WPIMULT • Modify well PI K. squeezes.

 Create history strategy.FEKI 193 .History Strategy in Petrel  Import • Well paths (deviation surveys) • Well completion data o Completion intervals o Workover events o Production/injection data.  Export case: • ECLIPSE SCHEDULE section keywords K.

FEKI 194 .Predictions K.



Specify/change output frequency.
Specify wells, VFP tables, and completions.
Specify groups.
Specify group and well:
• Economic limits and well tests
Choose keywords that will
cause ECLIPSE to treat
• Automatic workovers, drilling, etc.
wells according to the
5. Advance the simulation.
company operating the
6. End of prediction.




Production Forecasts



Well Controls



Well Controls: ECLIPSE keywords




WCT.FEKI 199 .Primary and Secondary Well Controls Primary controls •Target rate of a principal phase. or •Fixed pressure(either bottom-hole or tubing-head) Secondary constraints •maximum rates of one or more phases •maximum ratios (GOR. WGR) •limiting pressures •limiting ΔP Eclipse will operate the well under the primary control unless one of the secondary constraints is violated Controls may be re-set at any time during the simulation K.

Production Well Controls –Example 1 K.FEKI 200 .

Production Well Controls –Example 2 K.FEKI 201 .

Production Well Controls –Example 3 K.FEKI 202 .

The waterflood has reached P1 but is not providing enough pressure support.FEKI 203 . BHP rises due to pressure support from the aquifer and injector.  P1 is moved to BHP control.Production Well Controls –Example 4 WCONPROD --nm status ctl-by Oil P1 OPEN W-G-Limit BHP THP VFP# ORAT 4000 2000 3* 3000 2* /  P1 is under oil rate control.  P1 is switched to control by water rate. Water cut is rising and BHP is dropping. K.

Other Well Control Keywords -WELTARG K.FEKI 204 .

Group Production Control  Group control is used to mimic field operation. Company D drills wells whenever the field production falls below a rate (PRIORITY). • Facility B uses 25% of its gas production to run a treater and sells the remaining gas (GCONSUMP).  Examples: • Platform A has a certain water-handling capacity (GCONPROD).FEKI 205 . • A voidage replacement scheme is implemented in Block C (GCONINJE). DATA File K. • To maintain pipeline capacity.

FEKI y Da t n se Prediction Period (Restart Run) Time 206 .RESTART  Why bother to recalculate past saturations and pressures? Cell Saturations and Pressures Recorded Field Production Rate  The solution at the end of the history period is set as start conditions for the prediction runs.  Restarts save simulation time! History Period (Base Run) Pre K.

K. – Grid geometry: • Small PV cells next to large PV cells. – LGRs: • LGR smaller than drainage radius. • Initial contacts outside LGR.FEKI Plot and Fix! Inactivate with PINCH or MINPV! 207 . – Dual porosity: High value of sigma.Convergence problems – Data errors: • Special characters and missing values.

FEKI 208 .Report K.

FEKI 209 .Petrel Interface K.

Explorer Panes Contain all Fault models and 3D grids Contains all imported data and all subjects that are not a part of the 3D grid Bold item Click on an object name to activate it K.FEKI 210 .

Explorer Panes Anew case is added each time a simulation or volume case is defined Used to select lines to show in the function window. Used to display 3D properties in 3D window.FEKI Only one process can be active at the time 211 . K.

Display Tools target zoom Move View all displayed data View from specific position K.FEKI Select/Pick mode.allows for selecting objects and getting information bout them in the status bar 212 .